Noel Hodson, 14
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CC Aharon Davidson, Ben-
LEP elctroweak working group CERN
A Christmas gift to physicists searching for dark matter and Higg’s boson.
Adrian Cho’s article “Darker and
Darker” (NS 22/29 December 2001 page 10) revisits the mystery of dark matter,
thought by many to be required to glue the universe together. My view is that
Hubble expansion is the missing, mysterious dark force sought. If Aharon Davidson’s team at
I note that Steinn Siggurdson says he
publicised his theory of planetary formation, a new dimension of space and a
huge increases in
If Hubble expansion is the prime driver in the universe and if it acts at every scale, then every zone or bubble or globe of space/time is expanding; by a percentage of each globe’s surface, that gets larger every second – this is constant acceleration. Einstein demonstrated that constant acceleration is indistinguishable from gravity. Let’s assume that expansion is gravity and vice-versa. The basic stuff or energy of the universe is light (the electro-magnetic spectrum). We have dismissed the existence of the ether but wherever we choose to erect a sensitive screen in the universe, light will be detected. It is an energy that is everywhere at all times. It is the stuff of the universe. Imagine a zone or globe that expands and attenuates the energy field, causing a vacuum. Light rushes in to fill it. It expands again, light again rushes in to fill it. This process and pulse is everywhere and it never ceases as the universe expands. Randomly, light collides in these zones of expansion and in some instances creates spin at the square of their impact speed (no friction exists to slow them down). Such vortices are the first fractals of matter – and they are also expanding constantly. This leads to the uncomfortable image that the Earth is expanding, and that so are we. Imagine the zones are quantum defined at the Big-Bang moment, and they are everywhere. Randomly, a zone will suck in a fractal of matter; that in turn has compressed the equivalent of several zones and acquired mass and inertia – all expanding. As such mass expands it has a material surface that slows the tendency to refill the attenuated space and allows a more powerful vacuum to form, it is a stronger attractor than open space. Gravity has become apparent and that zone is actively attractive. Think of it as an in-falling zone. It does not rely on random collisions to build its mass and therefore the mass will build more rapidly. The “gravity radiation” or gravitons that elude particle physicists are, in this theory, the in-falling of any zone, that pulls or attracts energy and matter from its immediate surroundings into the hole caused by expansion – in a field force effect, at a constant rate, that Einstein tells us is indistinguishable from gravity. I propose it is but a small mental leap to imagine that expansion is gravity – and if so, this new perspective, this new dynamic tension throughout the universe will answer some of the perplexing questions Sigurdsson and many others are investigating.
This Gravity-is-Expansion theory, I aver, is a lot more fun than Stienn Siggurdson’s theory. It gets scary when the question is put – “what happens if it all stops expanding?”
Stuart Clark’s article Chasing Shadows (NS2287 21s April 2001), updates reports on the cosmologists’ search for CDM, WIMPS and dark galaxies. These phenomena may or may not be found to exist. However, the fundamental factor for measuring the universe and for making many of the calculations that trigger the searches for missing “dark” matter is Hubble’s Constant for the expansion of the universe. The application of Hubble’s Constant necessarily creates a set of circular arguments, but it has been widely accepted and is the basis for the Big Bang theory. The implications of expansion seem to be not factored into the search for the alleged missing mass that, for example, holds galaxies together. If scientists rely on the Big Bang theory they should also accept expansion. The effects of expansion are, it seems, ignored. However tenuous the, in practical terms, infinite fabric of the universe and its energy fields may be, if the whole is constantly expanding then those elements must also be expanding and must for a short, virtual moment of expansion become even more tenuous. This attenuation must occur on every scale and in every zone or sphere of the universe, however large or small. It may vary with mass and other features and forces. Such attenuation would, logically, create an attractive, binding force. The most reliable data about the rate of expansion (though again a circular argument), is that the visible perimeter, circumference or horizon of the visible universe accelerates away from us, the observers, at the speed of light. As a percentage of the universe it is a small effect – but then so is gravity. And if, as the Americans say, we do the Mathĺ, it may be seen as a significant part of the solution to missing matter. Perhaps not matter at all, but rather the absence of it.
ĺ We believe the radius (age) of the visible universe to be about 12 billion light years, receding at 300,000 kilometres per second. Adding 300,000 kilometres to the radius and calculating the change in the circumference gives a factor of 2.642482665314E –18 (0.00000000000000264% per second).
GRAVITY AND THE COX’S PIPPIN.
The article, Medium
Mass, by Marcus Chown 3rd Feb 2001, on
Mass, Inertia and Gravity, reviewing the work of Haisch,
Rueda, Wesson and Puthoff prompted me to contemplate my own
agreeable mass and inertia. On Earth I weigh 13.5 stone of perfectly formed,
but aging bone and muscle, leavened with a few ounces of brain cells. I daily
fight the heroic fight to remain vertical against the forces of gravity. To
stop the fight I would need to travel 250,000 miles from Earth where I could
bob about in space weighing just 0.5
The three articles on black-holes in New Scientist 1st April 2000; by Marcus Chown, on atom sized black holes and by Nigel Henbest and by Stephen Battersby on quasars, radio jets and galactic sized black holes tacitly assume that black-holes are collapsed very large objects, compressed by gravity – a force that, as Newton’s apple demonstrated, is self-evident but, as the continuing search for gravitons and CDM illustrate, is not yet understood. The observed and theoretical characteristics of black-holes, particularly the emission of immensely energetic radio jets, might better fit with Hubbard’s expanding universe than with the concept of matter crushing itself into the total annihilation of a singularity and quitting the universe.
Einstein demonstrated in his constantly accelerating windowless elevator thought experiment that gravity and constant acceleration are indistinguishable from each other. If Hubble expansion is to be incorporated into universal theories then every zone (e.g. sphere), at every scale, sub-atomic through galactic to universal, must logically be expanding at a constant (or variable) rate of acceleration. Einstein tells us that we would not know whether our experience of weight were due to gravity or expansion – if we were to stand on the surface of a sphere in Hubble’s ever expanding universe. We must ask ourselves just what is expanding in Hubble’s universe – just what is the fabric of the universe that stretches and grows infinitely; and what local effect does such expansion have on attenuating energy and matter.
The existence of galactic and atomic black holes implies that black holes may exist at any scale in any part of the universe. If, as Fred Hoyle postulated many years ago (before recanting), the universe is being constantly created at all points and if, as Einstein demonstrated, we cannot distinguish between expansion (acceleration) and gravity and if Hubble’s interpretation of red-shift being evidence for universal expansion is correct, the ubiquitous black holes could be caused by expansion – and they could be spawning not destroying matter.
Thought of as vacuums created by the attenuation of the stuff of the universe as it expands, black holes would exhibit exactly the same behaviour and characteristics as collapsed gravitational objects. The power of expansion would attenuate the universal fabric and nature, abhorring a vacuum would rush to fill the void – with energy and matter. As the void of a black hole was filled, bearing in mind that the zone is constantly expanding, a pulse would occur of expansion, void, fill, expansion. The in-rushing or in-falling energy and matter would collide, become plasma due the impact and recoil. It may be postulated that the collisions of energy in these zones created and still create primary particles.
Thus paradoxically, zones of Hubble expansion would attract matter and energy as the zones push out their boundaries. This expansive, attractive force would in all ways be indistinguishable from gravity. CDM would be explained by the existence of innumerable, invisible black holes. Black holes rather than being The Great Annihilators of Nigel Henbest’s article, would in fact be the fundamental unifying force and the creators of the universe.