The Transition from an Industrial to an Information Society.



The Author, Noel Hodson, has 30 years accountancy experience, was an employer and entrepreneur, specialising in long term tax-planning. He has advised more than 5,000 SME's and has been a telework consultant to British Telecom and the European Commission for ten years. He wrote the Economics of Teleworking (BT Labs 1992) and Teleworking Explained (Wiley & Sons 1993) and is known for his seminal work on the Costs & Benefits & Ecological Impact of telework. His WEB Site is Http://www.NoelHodson.com . He is a director of ITAC the International Telework Association and Council in Washington DC. Here he makes the following forecasts about the transformations that the Information Society will bring:


Future Forecasts -  1 - Telework will force radical economic and political changes. The boss-employee relationship will be replaced by a collegiate culture. Computer telephony global compatibility will be achieved. - 2 - Russia will become the wealthiest nation in Europe. -  3 - Russia will bypass the wired telephony stage and use wireless systems.  -   4 - I forecasted GRIDLOCK in the UK before 2007 in an analysis "The Impact of the Information Society on Future Traffic Congestion 1997-2017"; it is likely that, -5- despite increased teleworking, Europe will suffer several gridlocks before it builds integrated transport systems.  -6- I also forecast that Cyberspace Headquarters, virtual reality, 24 hours a day, electronic offices will be developed; where attendees will be able to "see" each others' virtual presence. I forecast that people will have implanted computers in their bodies.  - 7 - I forecast that cars will be sold more for leisure use than for business use, within the next decade; and that cars will be shared, via computer systems, to use them for a larger percentage of their lives. - 8 - I forecast that 60% of all EU jobs will be teleworked jobs, (location independent) by 2015 and that only 40%, essentially people-face-to-face-with-people jobs, will be at fixed locations. - 9 - I forecast that Wired-Democracy will be slow to arrive, but will certainly come and replace traditional parliamentary meetings. Voters will vote on many issues every year in electronic referenda. -  10 - There will be a huge reduction in the number of financial services jobs, from 1999 to 2009, across the world.   - 11 - I forecast there will be a flood of cyberspace tax-haven planning for ordinary citizens before international agencies are established to harmonise tax rates world-wide. And - 12 - that access to real information about money and economics will lead to the end of hundreds of years of secret profits and financial abuses - leading to the end of poverty. - 13 -  I forecast that numbers employed in financial services and in automated manufacturing will be reduced by 90% by 2021 and that international controls on speculation in stock, commodities, money and derivatives markets will be in force. - 14 -  I forecast that OECD citizens will be able to live in and work from almost any part of the planet by 2021 with normal social security from their country of origin.  Somebody will register an "Off-Planet" company, for tax purposes, on a satellite, in the next 5 years.  -  15 - A new global currency will be introduced without warning to catch all money-laundering, requiring criminals to explain the source of their wealth; computers will track all honest and dishonest flows of money world-wide. Tax avoidance and money laundering will be ended by international agreements - sooner than we like to think. - 16 - I forecast that most consumer goods will be manufactured in "factories that are computer controlled automated facilities, switched on and off by teleworking managers via the Internet".  And, - 17 - I believe that geographic and national boundaries will dissolve and that communities will become self-governing, devolved, special interest groups under the global umbrella of international agencies  - e.g. for finance, defence, clean air etc. Therefore, government for example in Europe, will become infinitely subtle and flexible. "A subtle patchwork of hundreds of devolved communities under a European umbrella".






Forecasts for the Information Society up to 2021.


NB : To avoid qualifying each and every forecast, they are here cited as if the changes and the years are certainties. However, the dates when changes may occur, particularly the major changes, could be many years adrift.


Rapid Growth in Telework....................................................................... 2

The Resurrection of Russia...................................................................... 3

The Birth of Telework 1980-1992............................................................. 4

Berlin gave a lead................................................................................... 5

Hearth & Home & Work may not mix........................................................ 6

Gridlock................................................................................................ 6

Your Information Technology Status at Cyberspace Headquarters................ 8

Most Jobs will be Teleworked by 2015...................................................... 9

1999 Map of Statistics........................................................................... 10

Banking on Automation......................................................................... 12

Tax Havens, Money laundering and Off-Planet Companies......................... 14

Live Where You Play – Not Where You Work........................................... 15

Remote Computer Controlled Factories................................................... 16

Psychological and Fiscal Barriers............................................................. 16



Rapid Growth in Telework


From 2000 to 2021 the rapid growth of telework in Western Europe will surpass the most optimistic forecasts, forcing radical economic, fiscal and monetary changes upon the traditional structures of the European Union. Worldwide by 2021 there are likely to be some 400 million teleworkers, who should be able to live anywhere on the planet, conduct their work at a distance and have the same fiscal security as they have in their countries of origin. This revolution will have fundamental implications for the daily commute to and from work; for the status of people and the hierarchy within organisations; for the usage of local and international languages; for class, caste and religious systems;

for the commercial and tax implications of trans-border transactions; for local, regional and international financial systems; for employment, unemployment and pay-rates around the world; for national taxes, tax havens and money laundering; and, not least, for the compatibility and interoperability of computer and telephony systems.


The Resurrection of Russia


Russia, the World's largest country, may become the wealthiest and most powerful economy in Europe when it spans its vast land masses with modern, probably wireless, telecommunication networks. Russia provides a good example for the transition from a collapsed 1930’s economic model, an industrial and agricultural economy, to an electronic and computerised economy. Russia has all the human skills and natural resources required for the transformation.  The USA and Western Europe can count and identify the strong growth and economic improvements brought by the electronic and information-society age. Russia, the only other country to reach the Moon and develop Space Stations has not yet joined the revolution, but it is inevitable that it will and it seems likely that it will learn from Western experience and Western mistakes when it chooses how to build the infrastructure for its modern communication networks. 


Through the two decades from 1988-2008, Russia's 150 million people may barely survive Glasnost and the introduction of Western capitalism and they will certainly come late to the Information Age. Their vast natural resources of oil, gas, tritium, hydro-electricity, agriculture are currently being neglected and under-utilised and the value of them is unlikely to be unlocked for another 20 years.


Hampered by an inefficient and perhaps dishonest banking system, electronic transactions remain very difficult to complete in Russia. For example, in 1998 Professor Dr. Josef Hochgerner, a telearbeit expert from Vienna [1], drove hundreds of miles to meet a Russian academic colleague to hand over cash for an EC sponsored project, because it was feared that Russian banks were more likely to steal the Euros passing through their hands than to successfully complete an electronic transfer. Communications equipment remains scarce; for example in 1999, Rostov University owned only two aged desk-top computers. Moscow University was hardly better equipped with, in Western terms, limited access to the Internet.


But once a modern computer-telephony system is created, reliable and inexpensive electronic banks will be able to handle the ordinary citizens' transactions securely and, with the advantage of the latest technologies, Russia could leapfrog from failing Heavy Industry to Electronics and the Information Society, into the dominant economic position in Europe by the year 2021.   



The Birth of Telework 1980-1992


Telework, or telecommuting, started some 40 years ago in about 1980 when Jack Nilles at the state traffic authority in California realised that around the World, every work-day, about 450 million people travelled an average ten kilometres to work, taking about an hour, and every evening, before supper, they all travelled back again - for another hour. The weight of the vehicles used to transport these hapless commuters was more than 500 million tonnes. If parked on a square kilometre, the vehicles would form a stack six kilometres high, about the height of Mount Everest. Jack Nilles[2], Alvin Tofler, Gil Gordon [3] and other pioneers realised that this gargantuan, polluting, costly morning and evening commuting ritual travelling 20 kilometres, was not the best way to organise work. They promoted the concept of "taking the work to the people, not the people to the work".


 My own early work, The Economics of Teleworking 1992, identified the most powerful economic rationale, namely that every hour per work day saved from non-productive activities, such as commuting, was equivalent to 30, eight-hour work days a year[4]. Typically a teleworker converting from full time commuting to full time at home gives an extra 30 work-days to their employer and gains 40 work-days extra leisure and family time. This is the logic for the "effortless increase in productivity" experienced by most teleworkers. By reducing their work-related-costs, for example commuting, child minding, formal clothing etc, a teleworker could save up to one-sixth of their gross annual pay. The economic equation for employers and employers was very positive. But the costs of organisational change and the habits of long term commuters put a strong brake on any headlong rush into telework.


In 1990, both in the EU and the USA, telework and telecommuting hardly existed.  In the UK in 1988, surveys commissioned by British Telecom showed just a few hundred teleworkers among a 27 million workforce. In Germany, France, Italy, Spain and most of Europe, telework was unknown. But a societal explosion was about to occur - the Electronic or Quiet Revolution had amassed its troops and now launched its attack.  Promoted by visionaries in the European Commission, including Industry Commissioner Martin Bangemann, and in the still mostly State owned telephone companies, the Information Society was being born.


Berlin gave a lead


Germany, recognising the road to the future, hosted The First European Telework Assembly[5] on "New Ways to Work" at the then empty Reichstag building in Berlin, in November 1994; a gathering of 300 elected representatives and telework promoters. The reunited German government moved from Bonn to Berlin in 1999. German teleworking was hampered in 1994 by some of the highest telephone call charges in Europe.


The Berlin conference was addressed by another visionary thinker and author, Professor Charles Handy[6], who urged the European socio-economic juggernaut to signal its engine room to start changing direction. Prof. Handy illustrated his advice with an Irish tale of a traveller asking for directions.  "Go down this road….", the Irishman told the traveller, "…….for a few miles. Go through the woods, up the hill and down into the valley beyond. After a tall pine tree you'll come to a pub. Beyond the pub you'll see a little stone bridge over a pretty rill. "  The traveller nodded attentively and jotted down the instructions. "Two miles before the bridge …" continued the Irishman confidently,  "….. you should turn Left!".   Prof. Handy reminded the conference that if society waits until it reaches the bridge, it would be too late to turn left - action for change was needed immediately.


The Mayor of Berlin welcomed the technology enabled trend towards flexible and tele-working but she expressed concern for the impact on home and family life if people stopped going out to work. The UK’s  Baroness Seaar  summing up the conference, echoed the Mayor's concerns saying that in her youth, when men went out to work and women stayed at home, ladies were very clear about family and work boundaries, vowing that "we may marry them for Better or for Worse ------ but not for Lunch".


Hearth & Home & Work may not mix


Marital psychotherapist Pauline Hodson published and delivered her paper "Bringing Home the Electronic Baby" [7]in 1996, citing the cases and difficulties of husbands and wives who as telework pioneers, switched from daily commuting to working at home. In the future it is likely that alongside New-Man and his spouse new societal protocols will evolve and emerge to resolve the difficult  emotional, spatial and territorial issues that arise when the home doubles as a micro–office. The new protocols will bring a new, enlightened understanding on working at home to employers, employees and to families. Numbers of sociological studies are being undertaken on this subject, accompanied by analyses and forecasts on travel patterns.




Many traditional employers continue to resist any changes to the status quo. Particularly if the proposed changes threaten their use of the motor car. In 1993, the Chief Executive Officer of a traditional two-hundred man UK consultant engineering firm, when asked to reconsider the role of the company car as part of the salary package, instinctively and unconsciously grabbed the startled telework adviser by his tie and tried to throttle him.


But the engineer’s resistance was swept aside, as he had fully recognised would and must happen, by young, computer literate engineers, organised on telework principles, working mostly at home, without office overheads, company cars and other fixed costs who undercut the market prices by up to 50%. Change will be either voluntary or forced upon companies by competition, but changes in work practices will increase exponentially as the power and reliability of mass communications improves. The “Work will be taken to the People” and the daily commute will rapidly become obsolete. This implies significant value and price changes for travel related activities and for commercial and domestic buildings.


The company car remains as the prime status symbol of workplace hierarchy. In Europe, more than in America, cars are still given to employees. They can cost as much as a house; are built to carry 5 or 6 people at up to 180kph; rarely carry more than one person at more than 50kph; last on average 5,500 days and spend 90% of that time immobile in car parks and garages. The status and ego invested by most of us into our cars, along with the money price we have paid, creates a massive inertia that blocks change. The horseless carriage means so much more to the majority than mere transport that logic and economics play but a minor part in the complex and deeply emotional equations surrounding these fabled machines. Henry Ford has much to be praised for and much to be cursed for in bringing cars to the huddled masses.    


It may take one or more severe gridlocks and great improvements in virtual presence, video conferencing and the user friendliness of PC’s to finally topple the company car; but all of these are forecast and seem to be inevitable. Just when the log-jamb will break is an open question that revolves around the growing inconvenience of maintaining and parking a car balanced against the convenience and self-expression inherent in owning one.


The growth in traffic is so ubiquitous that no statistics need to be published here to convince any road user that gridlock is around the next corner. Out of eight UK regions only three have sufficient main road space to allow peak hour traffic to flow above 18 miles an hour. In the South-East of England and Greater London, some parts of the road network are in danger of being filled by public transport, and brought to a halt simply by the commercial and specialist (cleaning vans, road mending machines etc) vehicles that necessarily spend most of their lives on the roads. With the ever increasing car ownership and use a severe London gridlock is possible at any time of the day between 7am and 9pm, particularly during school term time.


The most likely dates for London gridlock occur in October and November. There was a five hour gridlock as long ago as 1984 in London on a dark November afternoon when the traffic remained motionless on the main artery to the West, the Marylebone Road from around 3pm to 8pm. Immobilised company cars rapidly become a substantial, costly disincentive to those locked into traffic queues – being unable to either travel or abandon the car. The company car is almost certain to disappear from salary packages by 2010.





Your Information Technology Status at Cyberspace Headquarters


Workplace Status will by 2015 be indicated by the personal and home-office equipment provided by the company, and by the virtual presence access levels permitted at the Cyberspace-Office-Head-Quarters.


The technologies for these virtual electronic headquarters are being created today. Requiring no startling breakthrough in techniques or products, but with far faster and broader band widths, Cyberspace Headquarters will be established for all the top multi-national companies. They will be “open” 24 of 7, as Americans put it – 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Employees will be able to attend via sophisticated teleconferencing and be able to reproduce most of the encounters and transactions that take place in a large central office. The technology will enable people to see their colleagues and enable themselves to “be seen” to be at work. It takes little imagination and no startling technology breakthroughs to envisage being able to knock on a virtual office door in  a virtual corridor and hear your colleague call “come in” before you “enter” their space for a conversation. The core of a Cyberspace-HQ will be the permanent secretaries who will best know how the systems work and can guide less adept colleagues through the electronic environment.


Such virtual presence offices will become possible by 2015 and fully operative by 2021. The current vogue for the most senior people to delegate their technology understanding and tools will evaporate as the user-friendliness increases to the same level as using a button-free circular dial 1980’s telephone.


Most Jobs will be Teleworked by 2015


The family problems and resistance from traditional managers will be eventually overcome and the telework population will grow rapidly as computer-telephony continues to halve in price and double in power every two years.


By December 1999, at the turn of the Millennium, there were over 15 million USA teleworkers,[8] over 4 million UK teleworkers[9], and 4 million mainland Western Europe teleworkers[10].  The implications for Europe are that 8 million or more computer-home-offices have been equipped, almost all with Internet access provided by the employers (including about 25% self-employed). From UK and USA surveys it can be assumed that about 25% of the computer-home-offices are used on any one work-day; giving the bases for calculating the impact on road and telephone traffic[11].


These numbers were tangentially confirmed in a 1999 survey by NOKIA,[12] the largest mobile phone maker, that showed: - on March 31st 1999 :

Mobile Phone Subscriptions - Finland 62%; Norway 52% - Sweden 49% - Iceland 42% - Denmark 41% - Italy 39% - Portugal 36% - Luxembourg 35% - Austria 31% - Switzerland 27% - Ireland 26% - Netherlands 26% - Greece 24% - France 21% - Spain 21% - Belgium 21% - Germany 19%.  Numbers of mobile phone subscribers have been growing at 70% per annum. Here may lie the seeds for the modernisation, skipping the wired stage, of Russia, Eastern Europe, Africa and other parts of the World where wired telephone networks have so far been under-developed.                     


The most reliable telework statistics for 1998 were gathered by the European Commission project DIPLOMAT, the European Charter for Telework. The picture was as below:-


1999 Map of Statistics




Note -  These numbers show the home-telework offices equipped. The more important statistic – how many are being used on any-one-work-day remains difficult to estimate. Most surveys indicate that around 25% are in use on any-one-work-day.  Straw polls in traditional offices generally find that about 10% of the (office) workforce is working at home or remotely in a hotel for example, via computers, on any-one-work-day.


What the 1999 figures reveal is a large difference between the national statistics for teleworkers and the industry statistics for mobile phones.  Given that the majority of mobile phones were in 1999 then owned by people who had jobs, even allowing for the fashion for children and vulnerable older people to be given a mobile phone, it would seem that the extraordinary increase in workplace communications mobility compared to the 1970’s and 80’s was not and is not being regarded by statisticians as "location free, advanced communications enabled working" - one of the definitions of teleworking in current use. This difference is not surprising as the rate of change is so fast that no institutions and very few individual observers are able to keep pace with it.   


As German teleworkers were recorded at only 200,000 people - just 2.1% of the workforce - and as having 19% of subscribers (homes) owning a mobile phone, Deutsche Telecom led Europe by publishing, in January 1999, a telework agreement for their 210,000 employees, endorsed by the employers, employees and trade unions[13], and paving the way for a large surge in numbers of teleworkers.


As "working where you live - and living where you work" becomes possible and fashionable, all jobs that can be made location free will be freed from fixed, central offices.  The economics demand this change and, as has been said earlier, the change will either be voluntary or forced – by the competition – but change it must.


The accompanying shift in travel will see more vehicles used for leisure rather than for commuting to work. But as commuting is reduced and as business travel becomes less glamorous and therefore also reduced, cars will be kept for longer, changed less often and become less of  a status symbol.  A UK teleworker cut his business & commute travel from 60,000 kilometres a year in 1990 down to 6,000 by 1995.  When the majority telework the peak hour traffic jams will be caused by School-Run’s, Shopper’s and Tourist’s journeys, not by work place travel. Fewer cars will be sold after 2010, fewer cars will be made, more cars will be shared via computerised availability schedules and, as the ownership status reduces, new models will become smaller, lighter and more fuel efficient; leading to more use of a vehicle's lifespan, and eventually to almost pollution free propulsion.


By 2015 most jobs that can be teleworked will be converted, and the daily commute will be a distant memory. About 60% of the 165 million EU workforce will work via computer-telephony in 2015. As traditional heavy industry, agriculture and manual work becomes increasingly automated, the number of jobs in those sectors will further decline[14]. The other 40% of the workforce will work in the service-sector; for example dealing face to face with customers, such as in Hotels, Cafes, Theatres, Sports, Health Care, the few remaining Retail Shops, Face-to-Face Training and in Laboratory Teams. Politicians may still physically gather in parliaments in 2015, but communications technology will become so user friendly and secure that even the most Machiavellian politicians will use it in preference to actual physical secret meetings in the corridors of power.   


Banking on Automation


The transformation we are experiencing is not and will not be without pain and crises. The signals were very clear in all OECD countries as long ago as 1990 that computers and automation would decimate jobs in banking, financial services and in heavy manufacturing – even in agriculture. The UK has led the telework revolution in Europe since 1985, because it then had the highest unemployment, the most liberal labour laws, the most flexible trade unions, the first privatised telecommunications monopoly exposed to competition and they also had the unforgettable Margaret Thatcher. 


As soon as powerful personal computers enable every citizen, 90% of whom are innumerate, to count and to follow economic models, global transactions and added-value chains, the mysteries that surround profit and money will evaporate.


With 21st Century technology at everyone's fingertips, the general population will demand accurate 21st Century information about the economic systems that govern their lives. As President George Bush told America - in the Information Society there are no personal secrets – forget confidentiality. Subject for the first time in history to public scrutiny, all the hidden inefficiencies, inflated margins and secret siphons inherent in the money-economy will be examined and corrected.  The money-economy will be brought up to date with the real-economy, the majority of people in the World, who are currently excluded, will be included in the money-economy, markets will be hugely enlarged and wealth creation will explode. Poverty will be all but abolished by 2021. If you think this is too fast, just remember using your first computer and the changes since then. In 1970 the ICL 1900 Main-Frame computers sold to major corporations had less memory than today’s pocket calculators. The rate of change is increasing not decreasing and the transformation of the world’s economy is gathering speed.


Just as tourism has brought prices in most developed countries in line and you can no longer live like a King on $20 a month in some hidden away Shangri-La, as you might have done in the 1950’s, so the transformation of the global economy made possible by advanced communications systems is and will continue to create wealth in all communities, wherever they are located. There is no hiding place from the Information Society.  Deliberately created and preserved Communication Free Zones or CFZ’s, where mobile phones, laptops, Email, radios, TV’s and all other electronic devices are banned, will proliferate and increase in value as people seek havens of peace away from the ceaseless, restless traffic of mass communications.  Who wants to trek two hundred miles through the trackless wilderness, to round a corner and overhear a mobile phone conversation reminding you that you haven’t paid your fuel bill and that you are expected back at work in three days – Stop the World! I Want to Get Off CFZ theme parks will be successful.


What has recently become a global cartel, the financial services industry, employing over two million people in the UK alone, will be converted into an open-accountability system, run on a few main computers, with checks and balances that any concerned citizen, anywhere on Earth, may be allowed to examine from their own PC's. This access to reality is already enshrined in Swedish law. 


Two million financial services UK jobs will be replaced by automated systems maintained by less than 50,000 people. A Global Financial Reporting Systems will be created by 2021 to eradicate excessive speculation and to ensure world-wide stability of financial markets.  An Internet Trade Agreement will soon have to be ratified by most nations, if only to sort out how VAT and Sales Taxes can be levied, enabling universal access and initiating a massive increase in very low cost international transactions.  Financial Services will be included in the GATT trade agreement by 2005, opening them to global competition for the first time. 


Employed teleworkers, already freed from fixed offices, will be able to obtain mortgages from their own region to buy a home and insure it, almost anywhere on the planet.


Tax Havens, Money laundering and Off-Planet Companies


As heavy manufacturing is being fully automated alongside financial services, the resulting unemployed are being and will continue to be encouraged into self-employed teleworking and into marketing their skills across the world. Millions of previously employed tax-payers are being thrown into the maelstrom of self-employment and being furnished with advanced communications technology. Those who earn good money rapidly discover that a solo-teleworker in, say, Bonn, can arrange their tax affairs like any international company - size does not matter. We can all pay as little tax as Rupert Murdoch and other “citizens of the world”. Thousand of new companies are being registered in the Cayman Isles, Channel Isles, Bermuda, Dublin Tax-Free-Zone and many other welcoming tax regimes by micro-enterprises who in the past had no access to such mechanisms.


 French employers are jumping on the band-wagon to avoid the highest pay-roll taxes in the world. They route their job offers, through cyberspace, to for example Channel Isle companies, formed by solo French teleworkers. Fewer European registered companies make any taxable profits as invoices in foreign languages, in strange currencies, drop out of cyberspace the day before the company year-end, and strip the profits out to some exotic location. Within the next five years an Off-Planet company will be registered on an accommodating orbiting satellites, leaving the tax authorities puzzling over the legal jurisdiction of the transactions that flash at the speed of light through the satellites' broadband channels.


National treasuries will however retaliate. The OECD in Paris has been working to control tax-havens through diplomatic channels for the past 6 years. As trans-border electronic transactions increase, national government tax collections are likely to decrease – along with their patience and measured speed of response.


If a tax collections crisis occurs in all OECD countries one powerful solutions could be the sudden launch of a new global currency, say, the EuroDollarYen (EDY) requiring all citizens to convert their cash and investment balances and at the same time explain their source and tax status.  The massive tax collections and money confiscation that would follow would more than compensate for years of poor treasury income. A  Global-Fiscal-Responsibilities-Convention can be forecast by 2017 that will finally end cyberspace tax avoidance and money laundering. It will create the fiscal and financial stability for teleworkers to live in any place they would like to live while retaining jobs perhaps hundreds or thousands of miles away. A world currency is inevitable and convergence of the main tax rates will occur. Local variances will proliferate as local authorities compete to attract high earning teleworkers to live, and to pay taxes, in their regions.


Live Where You Play – Not Where You Work


Teleworkers need to physically attend central offices less and less often, particularly with the growth of Cyberspace-Head-Quarters, open 24 hours a day and accessible as a virtual person from anywhere.  Teleworkers are likely to choose to live in communities of special-interest-groups, based on hobbies, such as mountaineering, or gardening, or ski-ing, or skin-diving, etc. and will buy houses in areas suitable for these hobbies.


Remote Computer Controlled Factories


Teleworking, as it has from its earliest days, along with computerisation, will help to free mankind from the tyranny of the commute and from the manacles of the production line in factories and offices.


By 2021, most factories will be computer controlled automated facilities, many underground near to raw materials, that are switched on and off in response to just-in-time-stock control instructions, by managers perhaps living hundreds of kilometres from the factories.  Citizens could be free to live wherever they like - enjoying the same financial, taxation and social security systems as they would in their countries of origin.  Bureaucracy and government, computer assisted, can become infinitely subtle and complex, managing hundreds of devolved European regions, catering for a multitude of local community preferences under the umbrella of necessary global agencies.


Psychological and Fiscal Barriers


The hurdles and barriers to these forecasts are not technological nor are they commercial, the barriers are psychological and fiscal/political. The fiscal system is the last of the societal mechanisms to come in line with the rapid pace of change. The major challenges lie in the fiscal and political changes required to accommodate the irrepressible Information Society revolution.




© Noel Hodson, OXFORD, UK, July 2000


Contact – Noel Hodson, 14 Brookside, OXFORD OX3 7PJ Tel +44-1865-760994 Fax 764520 Email noelhodson@msn.com    












© NCH Oxford 2003.


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[1] Jenseits Der Grossen Transformation - Arbeit, Technik und Wissen in der Informationsgellschaft - Josef Hochgerner - Locker Verlag - April 1999, Centre for Social Innovations, Vienna.

[2] JALA International and TAC (teleworking advisory committee), USA - search for WEB Sites.

[3] Telecommuting Review - monthly magazine 1984 -1999 Editor Mr. Gil Gordon. gil@gilgordon.com

[4] The Economics of Telework - BT Martlesham Laboratories 1992.  & Teleworking Explained - WILEY & Sons, Chichester and New York - ISBN 0-471-93975-7.

[5] Contact Andrew Page, organiser of the Berlin Conference - by Email: Protocol@ECTF.org.uk

[6] The Age of Unreason - Charles Handy - Arrow ISBN 0-09-975740-0 & The Empty Raincoat - Charles Handy, Hutchinson, ISBN - 0-09-178022-5.

[7] Bringing Home the Electronic Baby 1994 - Pauline Hodson - SPMP, London & Tavistock Marital Studies Inst.  Paper read at Stockholm University and at Global Village, Vienna. See www.teleworker.com or www.noelhodson.com

[8] See Telecommute Review, January 1999.  www.gilgordon.com

[9] University of Cambridge survey for Richard Ellis & Partners, Real Estate - Dec 1988.

[10] See - DIPLOMAT Brochure, Telework Statistics www.WISE-Forum.org or contact NoelHodson@MSN.com by Email.

[11] Contact - Dr. John Preston, Director, Transport Studies Unit, University of Oxford - john.preston@tsu.ox.ac.uk

[12] Provided by Walter Paavonen, Paavonnen Consulting AB, Sweden.

[13] Published in full in  - Telecommuting Review Volume 16 No 2, February 1999. www.gilgordon.com

[14] The Global Trap, ZED Books, by Hans Martin & Harald Schumann - Der Speigel journalists. October 1997.