The sentient universe. TOE Theory of Everything, TOE, Dark Matter, Dark Energy, Instantons, QED, Quarks, Universal Fractals, Universal Theory, Universe, an alternative to String Theory, Hubble Expansion, Gravity, Fundamental Forces, Not String Theory, spinning straw into gold, matter from energy, forming surfaces, double-slit experiment, prime matter, prime numbers, QED, DNA transmission.

New Model of the Universe – V7 – copyright – Noel Hodson, Oxford.

<a href="http://www.tinycounter.com" target="_blank" title="counter"><img border="0" alt="counter" src="http://mycounter.tinycounter.com/index.php?user=noelhodson"></a>

 

 

Short, pictorial, overview of these speculations

http://www.noelhodson.com/index_files/Life-Universe-Everything-8Mar2011.pdf

 

  

  Updated 

22 December 2015

 

PRESESENCE & ABSENCE

Higgs Bosons & Vacuums.

Look for the presence of matter

AND for the absence of energy.

 

 

 

TOE Theory of Everything TOE

 

EIG Expansion is Gravity

&

The sentient universe

 

Email: noel@noelhodson.com

 

 

CLICK for TOE Archives, articles and work notes

 

 

 

 

 

Home Page -      http://www.noelhodson.com

 

 

CONTENTS

Monday, 9 March 2015. 4

GRAVITY - A NEW THEORY.. 4

GRAVITY - A NEW THEORY - Monday, 9 March 2015. 16

Monday, 9 March 2015. 16

GRAVITY - A NEW THEORY.. 16

CASIMIR-GRAVITY. THE CASE FOR CASIMIR IS GROWING – 16 DEC 14. 21

Monday, 10 November 2014. 21

CASIMIR-GRAVITY.. 21

More on Gravity 4 – 26 Apr 14. 29

Saturday, 26 April 2014. 29

Saturday, 26 April 2014. 30

GRAVITY - IS IT AS SIMPLE AS CASIMIR?. 30

Meet the electric life forms that live on pure energy.. 34

Shocking breath. 35

Wire in the mud. 36

Flexible biocables. 36

MORE ON GRAVITY - 4. 39

Fusion, Gravity, Inertia, Lifeforce 21 Jan 2013. 45

Monday, 21 January 2013. 45

FUSION, GRAVITY, INERTIA, LIFEFORCE. 45

BIG-BANGS, AND GENTLE, SENTIENT FORCES – THE FIFTH FUNDAMENTAL FORCE: 48

3 comments: 49

HIGGS AND BABIES – 9 Sept 2013. 50

THE LIGHT FANTASTIC – 20 MAY 2013. 54

Massless particles [edit] 57

Massless particles contribute rest mass and invariant mass to systems [edit] 57

IN MY 70TH YEAR – SO FAR, HOW DO I THINK THE UNIVERSE WORKS?. 58

What this website discusses – an executive summary. 60

Expansion is Gravity - 2007 – the EIG model.. 61

Friday, 1 February 2013. 62

WHAT IS GRAVITY?. 62

Tuesday, 29 January 2013. 65

RECORD RECORDS - DNA PACKS IN DATA. 65

Monday, 28 January 2013. 66

BRIAN COX AND TALES OF DOOM... 66

Monday, 21 January 2013. 67

FUSION, GRAVITY, INERTIA, LIFEFORCE. 67

BIG-BANGS, AND GENTLE, SENTIENT FORCES – THE FIFTH FUNDAMENTAL FORCE: 70

CHASE THE LIGHT.. 71

MORE ON BIRTH, EXISTENCE, LIFE AND DEATH. 71

11th July 2012 The Higgs Boson & Higgs Field – The Aether. 73

23 FEB 2012 To Melvyn Bragg BBC 4 discussion - Conductors & semiconductors. 76

4 January 2012 – Structure of the universe - Aether-Matrix & Pauli. 76

3 DEC 2011 – A short, horrified anthropological diversion. 77

3 AUGUST 2011 – Music of the spheres – structure of the universe. 78

26 JUNE 2011 – Photon Aether, solves spooky action at a distance. 79

9 May 2011 – Heretical physics. 80

4 February 2011 – From physics to metaphysics and metaphors. 81

RYDBERG’S CONSTANT – IDIOT’S GUIDE.. 83

22 Jan 2011 – Spinning on their axis?. 84

18 Jan 2011 – Immortality & the Power of Inertia. 86

26 October 2010 – White Holes & Sinks. 87

24 October 2010 – Alpha, Aether and Inertia. 87

10 Sept 2010 - How Many Photons make you? What is your sphere of influence?  Click the link…... 89

http://www.noelhodson.com/index_files/Creatures-of-Light-SEPT-2010-V1.xls. 89

12 April 2010 – Quarks – Rest Mass – Protons – Neutrons – EIG still works, OK ! 89

BROOKHAVEN - ECHO OF EIG’s VORTICES. 89

22 February 2010 – Quark-Gluon plasma forms vortices. 89

NOT NEARLY THERE – QUESTIONS TO EXPLORE?. 91

25 January 2010 – Bouncing photons and constant in-falling. 91

1 DEC 09 – The Electric Universe - A dilemma: 93

The Electric Universe by Wallace Thornhill & David Talbot - 3 Nov 09. 94

Heavyweight empty space.  28 Sept 09. 95

Malevolent and Benevolent Viruses. Human DNA exchanges. 2 September 09 + later notes. (A brief aside from Gravity). 95

DNA – 4 September 2009. 97

DNA – 5 September 2009. 97

Are there two causes of gravity?  First Hubble Expansion, Second Casimir Exclusions? – 13 September 09. 97

Is the Casimir-Vacuum gravity? – 20 August 09. 99

Crab Nebula explosion expands to the edges of the universe; and the Life Force, ranked with Gravity, Nuclear and Electrical Forces – 7 Jul 09. 99

Melvyn Bragg & Co - vacuums or not? – 30 Apr 09. 100

“Ooops” Change to the expansion of the universe constant – 11 March 09. 101

“Spooky” action at a distance – 21 Feb. 09. 102

All the world’s a hologram” – 17 Jan 09 & 19 Jan 09. 103

Three illuminated thoughts - 2 November 08. 104

Wikipedia - Massless particles. 105

The LHC and a contradiction - 12 September 08. 107

The sentient universe and how humans alter it. 15 July 08. 108

More rough notes: on Russian Dolls, Multiverse, String Theory, Genes, Memes and me – Maybe synthesis later: 13 April 08  109

Is this the EUREKA moment? 28 March 2008. 110

Frank Close, The Void & that pesky Aether – 18 January 2008. 112

Particles or Waves – 24 March 2007. 113

(An unpublished) Letter to New Scientist – “Inflation” 1 March 2007. 114

Dark Energy – Cosmological Constant – Quintessence – 15th February 07. 114

Reconciliation – mathematical task – 25th September 06. 115

Aether or Ether or neither – 12th September 06. 116

Bubbles & Black Holes – 24th July 06. 117

Making dark matter – 15th July 06. 118

Musing on Light – 22nd May 06. 119

Water is the most likely laboratory to test EIG - 10th April 06. 120

Descriptive Essay on EIG – how it might work. 121

Gravitational Repulsion at Long Range – Stephen Battersby NS 24th Sept 05. 121

7 DEC 05 – A diversion into Intelligent Design & Is the LIFE FORCE the 5th fundamental energy?. 122

Instanton – reproduced from New Scientist 6 August 2005. 122

The holographic universe – thoughts on the Aether. 124

Memo on 9am BBC Radio 4 discussion, Roger Penrose, Carolyn Crawford (sp?) Martin Rees, Chair, Melvyn Bragg - 17 March 05  125

Memo on March 05 Scientific American article, Misconceptions about the Big Bang. - 17 March 05. 125

Memo on the double-slit experiment – 15 March 05. 126

Memo on Matter and Anti-Matter – 25th November 04. 126

Note on the Music of the Primes – 27 October 04. 126

News update – 3 September 04. 129

Introduction, pre-EIG.. 130

MAP, COBE and Some Astronomical EIG Numbers. 130

Six foot man expands infinitely – says MAP and COBE.. 131

Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) 132

Radio and TV signals – permanent patterns in Space - inertia. 133

Casimir and EIG – gravity within dense matter. 133

Definitions. 134

Letters to science magazines (not published) 135

 

 

updated Tuesday 22nd DEC 2015 2015

GRAVITY - A NEW THEORY

 

 

 

GRAVITY – HOW IT WORKS.

Noel Hodson, Oxford. 8 Mar 15.

Gravity is the relative absence or reduction of the pressure of the radiation that fills the universal ocean of radiation, which is from 13.7 to 43.7 billion-light-years deep. Contemplate "The ever tightening knot of gravity, ultimately resulting in black-holes" and "Counter-intuitively, the centre of the Sun is very dark" because the centre is most "shaded" or protected from or excludes the universal radiation. The external radiation is the PUSH and the internal partial absence of radiation is the PULL of gravity. NCH March 2015 





17 DEC 2015:  This month, there is a surfeit of media coverage about space travel - presumably its an anniversary of the first manned space-station or moon-landing. It includes films of men doing space-walks, extra-vehicular-activity, floating in black space not very far above the Earth. Also, I watched THE HIDDEN UNIVERSE on IMAX at The Science Museum, London - which wonderfully illustrates the inconceivable immensity of the observable universe. There are thousands of billions of galaxies, each with thousands of billions of stars, each star having planets - needing so many noughts that most of us - who have difficulty assessing numbers over 7 of people standing at a bus-stop - cannot conceive of the numbers. All these gravitational objects are in turn made from trillions of trillions photons, which are whorls in all the wavelengths that occupy the entire electromagnetic spectrum, which we refer to as "light".  It is the pressure of this light that causes gravity.

Analogy - We all know that a sail on a yacht fills with wind (concave), tugs on the mast and drags the boat across the water. What we think less about is that on the convex side of the sail, the pressure of air has to be lower. If both sides are the same pressure, the boat won't move - it will have flat sails. In this theory of gravity, the convex side is in "shadow" from the push of the wind. The shadow is the pull. This is equally valid for light.


We now know that sunlight, for example, has mass and can propel objects. In the universe, far out in deep space, the light from all galaxies acts equally on all objects or things. There is little or no "shadow" and the object is defined as free-floating. This equal pressure of light eventually makes all objects into globes. It is also a force that pushes all objects away from each other (dark energy?). Other forces pull them back together. 


If I were a brave space-walking astronaut, in say, geosynchronous Earth orbit, about 33,000 km above the surface and orbiting at about 11,000 kph (staying above the same spot on Earth), I would be free-floating and, with a slight shove, I might fly off into deep-space, never to be seen again. The gravitational pull between me and the Earth would be very small. I would have to get very much closer to Earth before its gravity would "grab" me and condemn me to re-entry and being burned to a cinder by air friction. What is actually happening here? 


My theory is that out in deep-space, I am surrounded equally by the pressure of the ocean of light, which is the stuff of the universe. Nowhere, except perhaps in black-holes, is without these waves and particles, which impinge on my surface and in which I "float". I have very little electromagnetic shadow.  Left floating for a few million millennia, the equal pressure would make me globular. 

As I move closer to the Earth, the light, which travels in straight lines (curved space and multitudinous complex reflections and refraction excepted) is intercepted by the bulk of the planet (line-of-sight-transmission) and part of the spectrum of wavelengths between me and Earth is diminished. On my deep-space side (concave) I am subject to the universal-ocean-of-light-pressure (43.7 billion light years deep) while on my Earth side (convex) there is relative electromagnetic shadow following the vertical lines of force to the centre of gravity. Some wavelengths are excluded (Casimir) and I start to "fall" to Earth. The planet is a conglomerate of matter, say atoms or molecules, which also have a light and dark side. The dark side is in shadow which excludes some wavelengths, and the deeper we look into the Earth, the darker the shadow of each particle becomes. The globe, formed by the equal pressure from the 43.7 billion light years deep ocean, is tending to become a black-hole; whose nearly infinite density mirrors the nearly infinite pressure of the universal light. All things, all objects in the universe are potential black-holes, or gravity sinks.


Centre of Earth to the surface (radius) is 6,371 kilometers (3,959 mi) : A person weighing 62.5 kilograms on the surface, who moves 19,013 kilometres from the surface (4 radii from the planet's centre) will weigh the equivalent of 7 kilograms (science converts this weight into units of 39 Newtons (one Newton is the weight of a small apple - Yes, really). His or her MASS doesn't change, but our Earth weight is mass x distance from the center of Earth x change of speed. (or substitute Moon, Mars, other planet etc). So, at only 7kg, a small push will send the space-walker into deep space - probably never to be seen again. I guess that although the space-walker is relatively near the huge Earth, he is now surrounded by and separated from the planet by most of the universal electromagnetic spectrum of waves (light); which now press in on him from all directions.
 http://www.astronomynotes.com/gravappl/s5.htm 

Finally, for this note, the lines of force towards the centre of the Earth from deep-space come in straight lines. They are all "vertical" to the centre of gravity of the planet. As I race at 11,000 km per hour at an angle (orbit) through these invisible lines of force, I will experience G-Forces or inertia. Let's remove the hot-air which would burn me up, and say do this on the airless Moon at 17% of Earth gravity; because I am defying nature and orbiting through the lines of force, I experience the universal inertia of the ocean of light, which in-tends, in straight lines, to the centre of gravity of the Moon. However, Newton's laws about the force changing by the square of distance (very feeble even at short distances) allows me to live at the required orbital speed - the inertia I feel is very slight. If I speed up a million times, in the same orbit, my defiance of the vertical lines of force will give me great discomfort, probably dismemberment - unless, which is most likely, I spin away from the gravitational body and its lines of force (light) making for its centre. 



26 November 2015. INERTIA - Does it fit with this theory?


I was recently struck by reports of fighter pilots, astronauts and Wall-of-Death riders experiencing G-forces, as they accelerate, decelerate and take curves and bends. The G-force stress on humans caused by such manoeuvres mostly occur within the Earth's atmosphere and gravitational field; both of which are hardly detectable a few miles up from the surface. Leave the planet's gravity and you all but escape the G-force. We primates, water based life-forms, inside our thin skins, creatures formed by and in Earth's gravity, intuitively understand G-force and its companion, the Center of Gravity. Simply swinging ourselves at the end of a rope tied to a high branch, informs us that countering the direct vertical downward pull of gravity, even slightly off 90 degrees, requires much energy. The most stable stance using least energy is to stay on one spot on the surface and stand straight - that is to stand at 90 degrees to the planet's center of gravity. Or, to adopt our most natural stance and shape as a sphere resting on the surface. 

Giant Californian Redwoods do the vertical stance very well. Our tall buildings also stand straight - one brick precisely and directly above the other (Pisa excepted). When we playful humans defy the straight up and down force; when we swing at an angle through the gravity field - we could be, and I suspect we are, crossing the columns of light (waves, particles or wavicles, as you like) that press down on every square centimeter of surface, the pressure from the light of the observable universe, and are also pulled in equally straight vertical lines, by the partial vacuum, caused by the dark side of light, beneath our feet, down to the center of the Earth. This is "the relentless ever tightening knot of gravity" that ultimately creates black holes. These precisely vertical columns of dynamic light-force, above and below us manifest in an organised field - like infinitely long straws - the energy and inertia of which we and our machines challenge when we go for the G-force. Few, if any machines rise exactly vertically from the surface, but even if they do, they have to counter the ever in-falling light from above and the ever suicidal urge of every particle, every thing, to follow its shadow and reach the dark (less light pressure) center below. QED  


17 September 2015: TESTING, TESTING, TESTING. IF there is any merit in this idea of the mass of the universal ocean of light causing gravity - then it should be possible, by applying the Laws of Gravity and working from known gravitational masses - The Earth for example - to measure the depth of the ocean and thus the size of the universe. For example: if Black Holes are thought to have infinite gravity, then the pressure of the ocean of light which causes the Black Holes is likely to also be infinite. At the other end of the scale, a tiny atomic or sub-atomic particle will always be surrounded by and subject to the ocean of light, pressing equally on its circumference, casting little or no gravitational "shadow" and will thus have hardly any discernible mass. I am daily increasingly inclined to believe that this idea does have merit.
 

A SHORT SUMMARY OF HOW GRAVITY WORKS AND WHAT IT IS:

20 July 2015. - What you need to believe or know the science of to grasp this novel theory. 

Firstly, that the stuff of the universe is light (the electromagnetic spectrum) which propagates at every possible wavelength throughout the entire universe at a maximum rate of 300,000 km per second. These intersecting waves or particles comprise the Aether-Matrix or deep ocean of cross-hatched light that is the fundamental-material of the universe. The energetic broadcast of these waves enable us to see or detect all the phenomena that we know of, from sub-atomic particles, to people, to galaxies.


Secondly, that light is not weightless; it has a slight but perceptible mass. This is a fairly recent scientific discovery; previously science believed that light had no mass. Thus in the ocean of light that fills our immense "observable" universe (as far as we can see or reliably calculate), the mass of light creates pressure. Gravitational bodies (all things large & small) are congregations of light. These congregations of waves /particles (matter) are compressed by the pressure of the deep ocean of light on the "outside" while the matter shields or casts a shadow on the "inside" of the gravitational body. "Counter-intuitively the centre of the Sun is very dark"


Thirdly, that the well observed Hubble Expansion is most probably real and is a primary driver of cosmic events.


Fourthly, that the universally detected Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) which manifests at 3 degrees above absolute zero, is most probably real and demonstrates that nowhere in the observable universe is there "empty space". Light is some-thing not no-thing. There is no empty space.


Fifthly, that the geniuses Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein, and the hundreds of brilliant mathematicians and engineers who have and do accurately apply their formulas, are reliable and correct; that the Laws of Gravity and our observations of how gravity behaves, are correct. 

New Scientist Sep 2015.
Journey to the Centre of the Earth


NB 1 - note to self - Is time the dimension that holds the 80% of missing mass from protons, neutrons etc; the past & future energetic activity as in DISSIPATIVE PHENOMENA (2)

NB 2 - Bubbles in liquids form by energetic events, and after a time they implode as the universe presses in. Do bubbles form in "pure" energy? How? Bubbles have an inside and outside dimension, which mirrors this theory of gravity. Are they precursors of the so far unknown process of creating matter from energy - spinning straw into gold? If so, then gravity could be the fundamental, subtle  and gentle force that makes matter. From ephemeral, delicate bubbles to destroyers of galaxies - Black Holes. The inexorable "ever tightening knot". Think on't. 

NB  3 - If the first particles precipitated from "the searing hot plasma of the Big Bang" as it spread out and cooled, would light waves passing today through - CMB "empty" space at 3 degrees Kelvin - still precipitate such particles? Nowhere in the universe is shielded from the light from all universal phenomena; we can "see" the entire universe from anywhere.  

NB 4 - Wireless Flyte lightbulbs float on magnets. Does such a human constructed magnetic field insert wavelengths otherwise excluded by this rheory's  Casimir type effect?

 https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg22730371-200-is-the-universe-infinite-or-just-very-big/

Infinite Universe? New Scientist 12 Sep 2015

https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg22730380-500-modern-day-alchemy-is-putting-the-periodic-table-under-pressure/

NB 5 - Immense Pressure at Earth's Centre - The centre of gravity - New Scientist 12 Sep 2015.
Why do ALL particles drill down to the centre of all gravitational objects - even to their own destruction?

NB 6 - Neutrinos - 2015 Nobel Prize awarded for experiments that discovered the "flips" across the three types, demonstrating neutrinos have mass. (?? are the 3 types related to the 3 quarks? Are they quarks in free flight?). This adds weight to the idea of the pressure of light.


9th March 2015 - What is Gravity?


The basic stuff of the universe is an energy field of electro-magnetic waves, radio waves, or in brief, light.  By, reverse-engineering Hubble Expansion, the age of the universe is calculated to be 13.7 billion years. However, from astronomy observations, the horizon of the sphere of the visible or observable universe is calculated as 43.7 billion light years – which implies that the horizon has expanded faster than the speed of light; otherwise the horizon would be 13.7 billion light years away.  If the calculations are awry or incomplete, the universe might be infinite in size and in age.

 

The calculations are possible because we can see to the edge of the "observable" universe by looking at the light being broadcast by distant and near objects, such as galaxies and planets. We can see objects in our immediate vicinity, and see each other, because all objects broadcast their presence. We infer the existence of non-visible objects such as the alleged black holes, from the behaviour of nearby visible objects – such as atomic particles, gas clouds or whole galaxies “falling into” black holes. All phenomena, on every scale, of every size and time duration, broadcasts its presence – and thus we see them.

 

These light broadcasts are spherical waves which propagate from the phenomena at the speed of light “C” which is about 300,000 km per second(300,000 km /sec in a vacuum. Light is slowed in denser media).  We are able to see and understand the phenomena because the expanding spherical light waves, or radio waves if you prefer, carry coherent and stable data to us. Wherever we position ourselves in the universe, we can see the entire universe as the multitude of light waves carry data to us. If we move our location, we see the entire universe from a different angle. The largest sphere is the visible universe, which contains the longest possible wavelengths. I envision that where the almost infinite number of electromagnetic (light) waves intersect, turbulence occurs which we see as photons or other particles. 

Such intersections occur at every point in the universal field; an energetic event, such as a source of light, vibrates the intersection particles, as the light waves propagate through the field, at the speed of light. We interpret what we see as moving "bullet like" particles - but just as in electric and telephone cables the in-cable-electrons do not travel but are excited in-situ - hence power sockets do not "leak" electricity - so the photons are not travelling; the waves are propagating. All broadcasts are natural spheres of waves - even laser-light, once it escapes far enough from the restricting confines of its crystalline source. Every thing, item, object, phenomena we "see" or detect is broadcasting its presence, its existence as a sphere of waves, either by internal or reflected energy.

 

Each viewing sphere we might occupy is filled with the coherent data from the entire universe, excluding light waves that are too large to fit into our viewing sphere. Every possible viewing sphere in the universe contains all the information about the universe, except wavelengths too large to fit the sphere.  I call these spheres holograms. The data in the holograms is real, is unique, is perceptible, and is stable.  The broadcast data changes moment by moment, mirroring all the events in the universe from sub-atomic to galactic. But, on human time scales, the appearance of the whole universe, of the visible universe, remains reassuringly stable. I believe this overall stability in the light field where at a detailed level everything is changing, is inertia.

 

The almost infinite in number, spherical, coherent, data-rich broadcasts of waves intersect each other in the light field, and yet retain their unique information and identities, creating a matrix of interwoven, cross-hatched light waves. I believe this is The Aether, proposed in Victorian times as the medium that carries light. Einstein did not deny the existence of The Aether, he said that he didn't need it in his calculations. I call it the Aether-Matrix. 

 

It is the essence of the universe and it is a field. There are now several discoveries about light that demonstrate that light has some mass – in contradiction to long-held scientific dogma that light is weightless /massless. Light does exert slight pressure on matter.

 

We know with a high degree of probability that Hubble Expansion is real. The light-field is continuously expanding, marked by the movements of galaxies. This expansion might be attenuating the basic energy field, which in turn seeks homogeneity and balance and so moves, at the speed of light, to balance the attenuated zones. Thus, at every point in the universe there is movement and a pulse, driven by expansion.

 

Equally probable is that CMB, the cosmic microwave background, is ubiquitous, it is everywhere, between the galaxies, manifesting a bitterly cold temperature of just 3 degrees above absolute zero; three degrees Kelvin which is -270 degrees Celsius or Centigrade.  This extreme cold, which is close to freezing even the movement of all subatomic particles, nevertheless signals its existence to us, as the “snow” on old TV screens. The nearly frozen CMB light-waves are still energetic enough to jiggle the electrons in the cathode-ray tubes of old TV screens on Earth. Light has some mass.  

 

Light is not “no-thing” it is “something”.  Scientists are planning to use light’s momentum to power solar sails through outer-space. Light has mass. The Aether-Matrix has mass.

 

Conceiving the Aether-Matrix as an ocean of active, data-rich waves of light; a spherical ocean that is at least 43.7 billion light years deep, the total amount of light in the ocean is heavy – light is some-thing not no-thing.  If a person could be placed at the “bottom” of this ocean, the almost infinite weight of the light would crush them out of existence. Fortunately, oceans of light don’t behave towards humans as a very deep ocean of water does to frail air breathing creatures.  The light, and therefore the pressure it exerts is everywhere. It surrounds us; it is within us e.g. we can see through a human with X-Rays, a child can see through its finger with a bright torch, we are not impervious to light; it forms the most fundamental particles which form matter. The infinite pressure of light is in balance in all universal phenomena.  And thus it does not crush objects out of existence, except perhaps the alleged black-holes.

When younger and more arithmetically adept, I applied the infamous E=MC2 and other algorithms to explore why light is limited to 300,000 km per sec. Even a gram of matter, approaching or at the speed of propagation of light becomes "infinitely" heavy. And so is impenetrable to light waves or particles. Waves of light hit a brick wall at light-speed. They cannot go faster. This limit demonstrates the pressure of the ocean of light. 

 

Casimir 1909 - 2000, a Dutch scientist, is famous for placing two entirely flat, non-magnetic plates together side by side, separated by tiny wedges, where the plates stuck together. He found that the light waves between the plates were less energetic than the waves outside, because the tiny space inside and between the plates was less than some wavelengths of light and so excluded those waves. 

 

The same Casimir effect occurs between two tall sided ships close together at sea. The gap between the ships imposes a size restriction on the waves in the gap, while the waves outside are those of the whole ocean and are larger. The ships are pushed together. The space between the ships or plates is shaded from some of the external waves; the external waves “cast a shadow” in the gap.

 

Instead of plates, imagine atoms of hydrogen, “floating” in a vast cloud in space. Each atom is equally surrounded by the deep ocean of light waves, and the light pressure, measured from the horizon of the universe, is the same on every point of an atom’s circumference. Forces, such as the Hubble Expansion “stirring” (above), along with chemical and atomic bonds, bring atoms into close proximity. Between the atoms, the Casimir Effect operates and casts a shadow “inside”, as compared to “outside”. There is less light pressure inside than outside as one or more wavelengths of light are excluded from the gaps. Inside is sheltered, is in shadow; is a subtle, partial vacuum. Outside is the full pressure of all the universal light waves stacked up to a depth of 43.7 billion light-years. Just as with the plates and the ships, the atoms are pressed together and pulled together. This is gravity.

 

I arrived at this concept by puzzling about "The ever tightening knot at the centre of gravitational objects - which all particles and mass seem intent to reach, even at the cost of their existence, in cases where they disappear into Black Holes."  

As atoms, or primary sub-atomic particles, clump, through the same processes as in the previous paragraph, the shadow between them deepens as more longer light waves are excluded. The largest waves cannot manifest or exist between the atoms. Initially, the pressure differential is almost undetectable. Other forces will break the delicate hold exercised between the masses of the phenomena, and they will drift apart. But in time, masses do clump together and are joined by other masses. The cloud of trillions of 3 degrees Kelvin freezing cold hydrogen atoms starts to coalesce. The masses cast deeper shadows, excluding more light waves from the “inside”, creating a relative low pressure zone internally, compared to the inexorable, almost infinite external pressure. A gravitational object is forming.

 

As it forms, the particles inside are pulled closer by the partial inner vacuum and are pressed together by the full force of all the light waves in the universal field. Each minute particle is observed or calculated, by us, to be trying to make its way to the centre, to the region of maximum shadow, minimum pressure and the centre of gravity.

 

If enough matter is continually attracted to the gravitational object, it grows large enough for the ever increasing pressure differential to create enough heat to ignite the previously freezing hydrogen. It becomes a star. Counter-intuitively, it becomes a bright star because in its centre some light waves are excluded, compared to the universal pressure from all light waves. The centre of the Sun is very dark.

 

All gravitational objects, all masses are dissipative. The mass and energy that is added to them, that continually "falls" onto an object, is mostly dissipated in heat, light and surface eruptions. But the processes of in-falling and outgoing energy are not always equal; and objects do retain in-falling mass and do grow. 

Unchecked growth makes ever larger objects, with an ever greater pressure differential; until a black hole is formed. Does a black hole exert such external pressure on gravitational matter that the matter implodes back to its original electromagnetic non-material wave form. Think of the immense, powerful jets of radiation observed escaping from some astronomical objects. (nb spinning quasars etc).

 

Noel Hodson – Oxford – An original concept created from 1992 to 2015. 

As far as I know, from my reading of science magazines and books since 1959, this is an original idea. Plagiarize this work at your greatest peril.

(NB - 3 June 2015. Can this idea be tested? Take many thousands of Casimir plates into gravity-free space - Lagrange points will do well enough - and bring two together so they stick. Introduce a pressure gauge & a wavelength reading sensor between the plates. These two plates might demonstrate the principle that excluding light waves creates a wavelength partial vacuum compared to the external pressure from the universal ocean of light. If so, add plates to the stack. Logically they should also stick. Add plates to the sides of the stack (square plates make this easier). If this theory has any merit, as thousands of plates are added to this growing structure - the internal pressure will increase; the internal "shadow" will grow darker; more wavelengths will be excluded. A gravitational object will have started to form.)

( NB - 29 May 2015. New Scientist Page 12.  Spacecraft may fly on graphene wings by Jacob Aron. This is another indication that light has mass; evidence for the "weight" of the universal ocean of light (electromagnetic radiation) stacked up to 43.7 billion light years - which I see as the the force for the "ever tightening knot of gravity".

http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg22630235.400-spacecraft-built-from-graphene-could-run-on-nothing-but-sunlight.html#.VWiTONJVhHw  )


(NB - 23 June 2015 - A lot of material but low gravity "
18 NOV 14 - If we reverse-engineer a large gravitational body, say The Earth, by imagining it has 10,000 shells that make its 8,000 mile - 12,700 km diameter; each shell is 1.27 km deep. Ignoring all forces & factors except gravity - if we carefully separated the shells by 50 km - breaking them as necessary to retain a globe like shape, like widely scattered, curved jig-saw pieces -  the outer shell of widely separated pieces would be 51.27 km x 10,000 shells = 512,700 km (radius)" This scenario - from Casimir Gravity - could be applied to The Oort Cloud of rocks, ice and pebbles orbiting at the outer perimeter of the solar system. Logic tells us that each rock will have low gravity, each pebble will have almost undetectable gravity, and yet the total mass is ...massive. Each individual piece is separated far enough from others to not have a significant Casimir Shadow. The universal light presses equally on all points of their surfaces. Imagine the pebbles replaced by sub-atomic particles - its is understandable that particle-physicists ignore gravity, which will have almost zero effect at that scale. But, pack them together, Casimir Shadows form - and the whole mass would make a sizeable planet; a solid, heavy gravitational body. I think this idea /theory has wings.)

 

********

100 Years of General Relativity - New Scientist 10 October 2015.


https://www.newscientist.com/round-up/general-relativity-100/


19 Oct 2015 -  Generally, relatively speaking, this is a good round up of the major factors in astro- and particle- physics from 1915 to 2015 - in accessible language. Well worth reading. I'll come back to this note again at a later date; for now I want to comment on information in Matthew Chalmers' The Missing Piece (page 40) in which he tracks Gravitational Waves. If my theory here has merit, then Gravity Waves as described by Einstein and searched for in the Cosmos don't exist. Science needs to search for the absence of something - Casimir Shadows as above - rather than the presence of as yet undetected waves. One clue to the existence of Gravity Waves cited by Chalmers is the observation of the precisely predicted slowing of the spin of binary pulsars - a reduction in speed of spin ascribed to gravity waves. This slowing is assumed to be due to loss of energy as the binary pulsars broadcast gravitational waves - a process that requires energy. If the observed slowing is real, if confirmed, then it is surely only to be expected of all and any object with mass in the universe. Our planet Earth is slowing. Our moon tugs on the oceans and slows our rotation. Without invoking gravity waves, my Casimir Shadow and the weight and depth of 43.7 billion light years of light, which causes Inertia and Gravity, is an oceanic medium with measurable mass that will slow any speeding object. To maintain a rate of spin, the object needs to receive a kick of energy from time to time. It is likely that all universal phenomena spin or speed through the ocean of light, which however ephemeral slows the object. New propulsive forces such as imploding stars and galaxies (not exploding but imploding as proposed here) will accelerate objects - Inertia, the ocean of light, will slow them. We may be saying the same thing in two languages but we do not need to invoke gravitational waves to explain the slowing of binary pulsars; which might be slowed by the slightest of friction from the ocean of light. General Relativity isn't so much explaining what gravity is - but observes what gravity does. Yes - it attracts and bends light - but give light some slight mass, which recent science allows - and light becomes another object that gravity pulls down to earth.  -  Not my clearest thoughts - at the end of  a long day - so I'll return to it another time. 

My earlier concept – A slide show – EiG - Expansion is Gravity (Dark Matter, Dark Energy, Sentient Universe)

http://www.noelhodson.com/index_files/Life-Universe-Everything-8Mar2011.pdf

 

My previous blog notes on this theme, building to this theory of gravity:

http://sci-fi-future-fact-fiction.blogspot.co.uk/2014/11/casimir-gravity.html

 

http://sci-fi-future-fact-fiction.blogspot.co.uk/2014/04/more-on-gravity-7-spin.html 

 

http://sci-fi-future-fact-fiction.blogspot.co.uk/2013/01/fusion-gravity-and-inertia.html 

 

GRAVITY WAVES - WHAT'S THE FUSS?

 

EIG - Expansion is Gravity



www.noelhodson.com/index_files/Life-Universe-Everything-8Mar2011.pdf



http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7dmvCsQly2c

 

INDEX - LIFE, UNIVERSE, EVERYTHING - JAN13

FUSION, GRAVITY, INERTIA, LIFEFORCE.   

 

DISSIPATIVE PHENOMENA (2)


INDEX - HIGGS BOSON

 

INDEX - LIFE, UNIVERSE, EVERYTHING - JAN - DEC 201...

 

BRIAN COX AND TALES OF DOOM


FUSION, GRAVITY, INERTIA, LIFEFORCE.

 

 

GRAVITY AND IMMORTALITY


************

 

 

CASIMIR-GRAVITY. THE CASE FOR CASIMIR IS GROWING – 16 DEC 14

 

 

Monday, 10 November 2014

CASIMIR-GRAVITY

16 DEC 2014 - A bit more. The whole universe of electromagnetic radiation presses "down" on any and all matter - as if the matter were at the bottom of the deepest ocean trench, under pressure from the water above and surrounding it. We know that "light" exerts pressure (and must therefore have some slight mass - it is some-thing, not no-thing); all matter has been formed from the light around it (E=MC2) creating a partial momentary void in the surrounding space; the basic stuff of the universe - pure energy - "falls" into the partial void and is followed by all light as it balances the pressures. In that sense all matter is "under" the pressure of the immeasurable ocean of all the light in the universe. Casimir effects shield the "shadow" in-side of congregating matter - and thus create the "ever tightening knot", the relentless pressure of gravity on the inside of layers of matter - until black-holes form. Then what?

9  DEC 14 - 
The Casimir-Gravity effect is a shadow. Light on  the "outside" and dark on the "inside". The ambient light is the entire Aether-Matrix, at the very least being the CMB (Cosmic Microwave Background) of 3 degrees Kelvin above absolute zero. I repeat that the Aether-Matrix is a field of coherent radio or light waves, which carry to every point in the universe, all the information there is in the universe (except long wavelengths too large to fit into the observing sphere). This ubiquitous field is constantly in-formed and re-formed by every event in the universe; yet over time retains powerful inertia and perpetuates identity. (Time: all events on every scale broadcast their presence; which propagate at 300,000 km/sec across the universe. Every event is detectable at some place in the universe, at any time). 

Thus there is coherent, data-rich, ambient pressure in the Aether-Matrix; introduce matter, say a film of soap, and it will experience an outside and inside from turbulence in the Aether-Matrix, which in this case will form  spherical bubbles. Crookes Radiometer or Light Mill, with paddles driven by strong (sun) light, illustrates the effect of pressure from light. The deeper the material is inside a gravitational body, then the stronger the minute differential between the ambient electromagnetic waves on the outside and the dark shadow inside. I repeat; that counter-intuitively, deep inside the Sun is a profound darkness,  a lack of most ambient electromagnetic waves, which creates a relative difference in pressure; where the outside waves are pressing in (down) on material that has an outer light side, and a darker inside.  



Crookes Radiometer. 
Paddles driven by light.
In a vacuum



18 NOV 14 
- If we reverse-engineer a large gravitational body, say The Earth, by imagining it has 10,000 shells that make its 8,000 mile - 12,700 km diameter; each shell is 1.27 km deep. Ignoring all forces & factors except gravity - if we carefully separated the shells by 50 km - breaking them as necessary to retain a globe like shape, like widely scattered, curved jig-saw pieces -  the outer shell of widely separated pieces would be 51.27 km x 10,000 shells = 512,700 km (radius) out from the center. The pieces would each retain The Earth's 1,007 mph or 1,670 kph rotation. The mass would be the same as our compact Earth, but the gravity of each piece would be very small. The center of gravity would be the same as before. Presumably, the Expanded Earth pieces en-masse (forgetting the Moon) would have the same gravitational relationship with The Sun, as does the Compact Earth. So, the planetary system of gravity would not be significantly different. I don't know how many hundreds of millions of years it would take for the pieces to clump and eventually reform a Compact Earth, but in the meantime each piece would not be visibly, quickly drawn to the center. The ever tightening knot of large body gravity, where every atom and sub-atomic particle is ever more compressed and appears to be suicidally intent on reaching the center and disappearing up or down its own Black Hole - is here strung out in an open lattice of peacefully co-existing, circling asteroids. What would be very different would be the Casimir Effect. This force would be barely detectable between the millions of spaced out asteroids. The data-rich* electromagnetic waves, photons and electrons that fill the universe would envelope each piece, almost equally, and exert approximately equal forces on each piece - keeping them in place (inertia). The imperceptible tug of Casimir shadows does have many of the characteristics of gravity. 

* These waves & particles enable us to identify every phenomenon in the universe. Each "thing" broadcasts its presence and essence via electromagnetic or light signals or waves, which we receive and interpret or read. The waves are data-rich and legible and are coherent in every location in space-time.  

**********

10 NOV 14 - Discovering the causes, sources and mechanisms of gravity, after 50 years of casual science reading, has been such a shock to my system that I've had a streaming cold and cough since; which has inhibited my concentration and clarity of text. So I have brought forward the paragraph and now, here, intend to summarize the summary. 

 

Here in 3 simple steps is how it works:

 

 

1) THE AETHER-MATRIX. The essence and basic stuff of the universe is light - the electromagnetic field - "pure" energy, initially with no bits in it. According to the alleged Big-Bang theory, the bits, matter, mass come a few micro-seconds later. This light exists in coherent patterns which persist for eons. Examine any sphere of any size in the universe and within that sphere you will "see" the entire universe, made visible by the cross hatching of waves of electromagnetic broadcasts: this broadcasting by all phenomena, of every size and energy level, is how we identify "things" and people. What is missing from your chosen viewing-sphere, are wavelengths too large to fit into the sphere. Apart from those, you can, with suitable instruments, examine the entire contents of the whole universe, in the comfort of your own sphere (e.g. The Earth or way out in the so called "void"). Every viewing sphere has a unique holographic image of the universe; unique due to variations in size and location. Inertia tells us that the patterns are robust and persistent, not ephemeral. You can re-visit any sphere, a thousand years later, and you will see pretty much the same universe. However, every energetic event, second by second, on every scale, changes the information in the universal field because the broadcasts in-form and re-form the energy field. We can analyse the newly in-formed and re-formed aether-matrix in our chosen sphere - and find it changed; for example by the coherent TV wireless signals from the latest episode of Coronation Street. These myriad holographic spheres of coherent and inertia-locked waves of the whole universe - are indisputable. Unless a reader can find somewhere in space where the universe is invisible.

 

2) HUBBLE-EXPANSION. I need the Aether-Matrix as a tangible, patterned, coherent field of electromagnetic energy - containing waves and lines of magnetic and electric force - because the first step after "pure" energy, I think may be caused by Hubble-Expansion (of the observable universe). The "light" energy is real, it is tangible, it carries information, it is some-thing not no-thing. It is this universal field that Hubble-Expansion (6.819E-19 percent/sec/sec) expands. No sphere in the Light field can become a vacuum. Compared to pre-existence (before the Big-Bang if you like) when there may have been no-thing, in the universe all zones are some-thing, not no-thing. Even the "vacuum of space" is everywhere cross hatched with the coherent, energetic and information-rich light field. Expansion of this field by Hubble Expansion, attenuates the field forces. The attenuation of any defined sphere is immediately filled or balanced by the field. This "in-falling" of electromagnetic energy - and by any bits of mass in the vicinity - is perhaps the underlying, very weak, constant precursor of gravity. It may also be the mechanism where quarks or the most fundamental particles are forged - whereby energy converts to matter, where straw is spun into gold. I have recently read that today not all cosmologists and physicists are convinced that Hubble -Expansion is proven - but it has been analysed and accepted as scientific fact for nearly a hundred years; so I'll leave it in here as a slight contribution to gravity; as a force that cannot be shielded.  

 

3) CASIMIR-GRAVITY. The Casimir effect is well tested and confirmed. It seems an interesting but rather inconsequential fact of the universe - that between two very close, perfectly machined flat plates, long wavelengths (of electromagnetism) are excluded - while all the wavelengths act "outside" the plates; creating greater pressure outside than inside - and pushing (and/or pulling) the plates together. The analogy of two large ships side by side at sea very well illustrates the effect; the ships are pushed together (see below). It occurred to me that a large object, say The Sun, would also cast a wavelength "shadow" of some shape (curved space-time) in its vicinity; or at least would alter the pattern of the universal energy field, and could cause a Casimir effect. At the smallest scale of matter, I thought of tiny particles, initially drifting in the eddies of electromagnetic currents in the Aether-Matrix, perhaps drawn to a momentarily attenuated Hubble-Expansion sphere; meeting, and between them experiencing a Casimir effect - alongside their magnetic and nuclear forces. It was not a convincing image to explain why, in large masses, all the bits seem to want to reach the centre - the centre of gravity. And thus why we must measure gravity arithmetic, for, say, space flights, from the exact centres of planets and suns. But, start adding millions of bits and within this initially loose conglomeration, and the Casimir effect, the wavelength shadow or wave exclusion, increases. Outside the pressure is constant (waves of the whole universe) while inside the slowly forming loose mass, the pressure of waves is ever reducing. Here, it seems to me, is the ever tightening knot of gravity - ultimately creating a black-hole. The centre of gravity is constantly shifting as mass and energy in-fall onto the central mass. 

 

Both the forces, of Hubble Expansion (see my EIG TOE) and the Casimir Effect, are very weak, barely detectable in small masses. Neither needs a further energetic sources or trigger. Neither can be shielded. The Casimir Effect grows with every addition to the mass - shielding the interior from long wavelengths. Both forces of in-falling energy/mass are dissipative (see previous notes). The three phenomena above - Light-Field, Hubble and Casimir are well attested and accepted by science. 

 

CASIMIR 1909 - 2000

The above paragraphs are more coherent (information-rich?) and complete than my notes below. In writing them, I am becoming more convinced that they contain the seed of an expandable and eventually testable theory. Is the mystery of gravity about to be solved? Would it have cheered Casimir to know that he may have inspired a new trend in physics - and made him smile?  

 











PREVIOUSLY:

 

http://sci-fi-future-fact-fiction.blogspot.co.uk/2014/04/more-on-gravity-7-spin.html 

 

http://sci-fi-future-fact-fiction.blogspot.co.uk/2013/01/fusion-gravity-and-inertia.html 

 

GRAVITY WAVES - WHAT'S THE FUSS?

 

EIG - Expansion is Gravity

 

www.noelhodson.com/index_files/Life-Universe-Everything-8Mar2011.pdf

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7dmvCsQly2c

 

INDEX - LIFE, UNIVERSE, EVERYTHING - JAN13

FUSION, GRAVITY, INERTIA, LIFEFORCE.   

 

DISSIPATIVE PHENOMENA (2)

INDEX - HIGGS BOSON

INDEX - LIFE, UNIVERSE, EVERYTHING - JAN - DEC 201...

 

BRIAN COX AND TALES OF DOOM

FUSION, GRAVITY, INERTIA, LIFEFORCE.

 

GRAVITY AND IMMORTALITY

 

*****************

 

First outline of Casimir-Gravity - notes:

 

7 NOV 14.  CASIMIR-GRAVITY. I think the major part of gravity is due to the Casimir effect. I wrote out the logic of this an hour ago, on this blog, where I had several tabs open. I was asked to "quit" a tab - with no option to cancel - and my new text disappeared. Will the world ever see my conclusive theory on gravity? 


...So - after a short rest; here it is again.


Casimir 1909-2000 noted that two totally flat plates brought together, stuck together. He introduced tiny studs between the plates and they continued to stick together. (The separation is very, very small - so don't try this at home).

The Dutch scientist, Casimir concluded that the glue was in fact the force of the universal electromagnetic field waves outside the plates being stronger than  the waves between the plates. They were being pressed together by "light" waves because the tiny space between them excludes larger waves, thus there is more pressure outside, than inside.


In the above diagram, you can ignore the nonsense phrase "vacuum fluctuations", which comes from stubborn old physicists who still insist that the universe is mostly "empty" space. It isn't. Having realized that there is no such thing as empty space they dreamt up miraculous non-existent waves and particles that pop-in and pop-out of nothing. What they are really referring to is the basic stuff of the universe - the pure energy field of electromagnetism in which matter emerges. The waves are electromagnetic waves (and particles) that exert force in so called "empty" space.  The waves are everywhere, at every scale, and their field is the universal energy, which is continually in-formed and re-formed by every energetic event in the universe - however large or small. It is the persistently coherent (inertia) broadcasts of all events that enables us to "see" phenomena - from sub-atomic particles, to each-other, to the observable-universe. Every-thing broadcasts it's identifiable existence:

http://www.noelhodson.com/index_files/Life-Universe-Everything-8Mar2011.pdf 

 


This same Casimir effect can be seen acting between two large ships alongside each other at sea. The ocean waves outside the ships are far larger than the waves in the calm area between the ships. The pressure outside pushes the ships together, overcoming the weaker waves between the ships. Casimir Glue is in fact a force that pushes rather than pulls; although both forces occur.


If we take two pieces of matter, say hydrogen or carbon molecules, drifting in space, the pressure of electromagnetic light waves acts on them equally. But when they drift close to each other, the Casimir effect acts to exclude long /large wavelengths between them, reducing the separating forces. They are pushed together by the universal "outside" waves.


Now add many millions more molecules or pieces; as they come together they exclude more light, creating interior darkness - smaller internal waves and less internal pressure. The pressure outside remains at full force. As new pieces of matter "fall" onto the conglomeration, the surface grows while the interior blocks more wavelengths - and darkness reigns internally. The deeper inside the material - the more waves are excluded - the more insistent the outside pressure seems.  


If we anthropomorphise the process, it seems that all particles are willful creatures intent on getting to the centre (of gravity). The centre is constantly changing as the masses move and more matter "falls" on the surface. At a certain size of mass, matter and energy join the incessant "in falling"; the centre gets ever darker - and we enter the mathematics of Black Holes. Counter-intuitively, large masses, such as the Sun, which blaze into radiating light and heat, are in their centres very dark; excluding most wavelengths.


Around such large shining stars, both particles and energy waves are pressed and pulled to the surface by the Casimir forces and we observe light "bending" close to the objects. This is Einstein's curved space-time. 


My realisation that gravity could or might be, mostly, Casimir forces, does not preclude the logic that the matter and energy that "falls" onto a planet, star, or galaxy is either matched by growth of the object or by an equal outflow. All material objects are dissipative phenomena. 


Between large, well separated objects such as planets, the electromagnetic waves manifest equal pressure - and the objects stay separate for eons. But, for example the Sun, a massive object compared to its planets, does shield the planets' orbital areas from universal waves - and exercises a push-pull Casimir force. The other 3 fundamental forces almost certainly are woven into the congregrations of matter, and add to the cohesion - but those 3 can be shielded, whereas gravity cannot be shielded.


What this implies is that there are no gravitons and no gravity waves, other than the familiar electromagnetic /light waves - which is the basic stuff or pure energy of the universe.


My previous essay, lost in Google space, was more elegant - but this will have to do for now. I think it is shaping up to be THE answer to many of gravity's mysteries. But - I would say that, wouldn't I.


DOES CASIMIR-GRAVITY MEET THE CRITERIA?


1) Newton's laws - including force diminishes by the square of the distance. There is no reason why these rules would not apply. Casimir-Gravity may show how this happens.  1a) Force acts from centre to centre of planets etc - This is what triggered my attention to Casimir - why do all the particles seem intent on getting to the centre? The cloaking effect inside as pieces of matter aggregate, and the constant external, universal pressure outside, will act like an ever self-tightening knot. The centre will become ever denser. It has always baffled me why all the bits make for the centre instead of loosely holding hands in a lattice - Casimir cloaking provides a mechanism - I think.


2) Curved Space-Time - I touch on curved light above. I think this theory can explain Einstein's construct - in due course. More on this.


3) The smaller the particles of matter, the more homogenous and equal will  be the the "sea" of electromagnetic waves around and between  the particles - reducing the attraction between them.


4) This Casimir-Gravity force cannot  be shielded. It is the shielding of electromagnetic waves that manifests the force. 




(I am (still) sneezing & coughing badly this morning - my usual November reaction to the onset of winter. So will take a break and return to this in a day or so. More to follow
).

 

More on Gravity 4 – 26 Apr 14.

 

Saturday, 26 April 2014

 

Saturday, 26 April 2014

GRAVITY - IS IT AS SIMPLE AS CASIMIR?

7 NOV 14 - I think the major part of gravity is due to the Casimir effect. I wrote out the logic of this an hour ago, on this blog, where I had several tabs open. I was asked to "quit" a tab - with no option to cancel - and my new text disappeared. Will the world ever see my conclusive theory on gravity? 

...So - after a short rest; here it is again.



Casimir noted that two totally flat plates brought together, stuck together. He introduced tiny studs between the plates and they continued to stick together. (The separation is very, very small - so don't try this at home). Casimir concluded that the glue was in fact the force of the universal electromagnetic field waves outside the plates being stronger than  the waves between the plates. They were being pressed together by "light" waves because the tiny space between them excludes larger waves, thus there is more pressure outside, than inside.


This same effect can be seen acting between two large ships alongside each other at sea. The ocean waves outside the ships are far larger than the waves in the calm area between the ships. The pressure outside pushes the ships together, overcoming the weaker waves between the ships. Casimir Glue is in fact a force that pushes rather than pulls; although both forces occur.



If we take two pieces of matter, say hydrogen or carbon molecules, drifting in space, the pressure of electromagnetic light waves acts on them equally. But when they drift close to each other, the Casimir effect acts to exclude long /large wavelengths between them, reducing the separating forces. They are pushed together by the universal "outside" waves.


Now add many millions more molecules or pieces; as they come together they exclude more light, creating interior darkness - and less internal pressure. The pressure outside remains at full force. As new pieces of matter "fall" onto the conglomeration, the surface grows while the interior blocks more wavelengths - and darkness reigns internally. The deeper inside the material - the more waves are excluded - the more insistent the outside pressure seems.

  

If we anthropomorphise the process, it seems that all particles are willful creatures intent on getting to the centre (of gravity). The centre is constantly changing as the masses move and more matter "falls" on the surface. At a certain size of mass, matter and energy join the incessant "in falling"; the centre gets ever darker - and we enter the mathematics of Black Holes. Counter-intuitively, large masses, such as the Sun, which blaze into radiating light and heat, are in their centres very dark; excluding most wavelengths.



Around such large shining stars, both particles and energy waves are pressed and pulled to the surface by the Casimir forces and we observe light "bending" close to the objects. This is Einstein's curved space-time. 


My realisation that gravity could or might be, mostly, Casimir forces, does not preclude the logic that the matter and energy that "falls" onto a planet, star, or galaxy is either matched by growth of the object or by an equal outflow. All material objects are dissipative phenomena. 


Between large, well separated objects such as planets, the electromagnetic waves manifest equal pressure - and the objects stay separate for eons. But, for example the Sun, a massive object compared to its planets, does shield the planets' orbital areas from universal waves - and exercises a push-pull Casimir force.

 

What this implies is that there are no gravitons and no gravity waves, other than the familiar electromagnetic /light waves - which is the basic stuff or pure energy of the universe.



My previous essay, lost in Google space, was more elegant - but this will have to do for now. I think it is shaping up to be THE answer to many of gravity's mysteries. But - I would say that, wouldn't I.




*********

4 NOV 14 - ELECTRON SPIN - My EIG TOE presumes that light rushes "in" to partially evacuated spheres which are being expanded by Hubble Expansion, which is attenuating the basic stuff of the universe, requiring energy (light) to move in (at the speed of light) to balance the momentary partial void created by Hubble Expansion. I speculate that the light moves in from all directions; that some in-falling light waves sometimes collide in the attenuated sphere; that the collisions sometimes are at such wavelengths and angles to create a spinning vortex; that the vortex is a primary particle - perhaps a quark; that there is no-thing to inhibit the spin of the vortex; and that two colliding light waves meeting in a frictionless medium multiply their momentums to spin at C2 (the speed of light squared) 300,000 x 300,000 km per second = 90 billion km per second; that this immense, forbidden speed creates a surface and a particle with mass within the surface; E=MC2. Thus are primary particles or fractals with mass formed from pure massless energy. They do spin straw into gold.

HOWEVER - investigating the Spin of electrons and other sub-atomic particles, the obscure 1, 1/2, 1/3 or 2/3 "spin" which rarely specify any units, I read that it is not a "real" spin and is not intended to convey any real properties of real particles. BUT, digging down into less obscurantist, less reverent and more radical websites,


 e.g. http://www.relativitydomains.com/Physics/MechSpin/QuantSpin.htm

I see that to account for its electro-magnetic charge the electron must have a real spin, like a spinning top, of 1.117967846C or 1.1 times the speed of light.



This is then taken as a standard - ascribed as 1/2 spin, implying that 1 spin is 2.2 times the speed of light. BUT, all physicists know that nothing exceeds the speed of light - so the measured spinning electron is said to be measured incorrectly and cannot be spinning at 2.2 times light speed. This must be one of the rare instances when oft repeated observational data is deemed to be less reliable than man-made mathematical rules. If a dot painted on the equator of an electron passes by at 1.1C - then the rule that nothing moves faster than light is, in these particular, peculiar spinning circumstances, not applicable.

It is fundamentally important because if primary particles /quarks are spinning vortices of  the basic stuff or energy of the universe, like whirlwinds and typhoons, then such spinning entities can be UP or DOWN and can attract or repel each other depending on orientation. They are too small and fundamental for any other particle to disturb their spin - except disturbance by another of their kind. The real spin creates the familiar electro-magnetic properties; the necessary constant winding in of "free, pure" energy creates an endless in-falling akin to gravity (the in-falling energy being balanced  dissipatively by the outgoing magnetic field); and these vortices can combine to manifest the other  sub-atomic forces - and to form stable long lived protons. It is written (by Paul Davies) that quarks are never found alone, outside of protons and neutrons, Maybe, if they are not in combinations of say, 2 UP and 1 DOWN or vice-versa, these vortices of pure energy unwind and disappear from our sight.

NB - Space or space-time is never empty, it is never no-thing; it is always some-thing. No-thing may have existed before the alleged Big-Bang. Bring back the Aether!


*************

NB - 31 JULY 14 - Is gravity the ability to compress energy (& gain & retain identity)? Continuing the dissipative phenomena idea - does the continuous inflow, the falling in, of mass/ energy equate to the faint tug of gravity? Matter somehow emerges from "pure" energy (light) and makes particles - which fall onto or into each other (gravity) and form objects. These objects, every-thing in the universe, by definition are identifiable, they have identity - and thus we can name and study them. To have identity they presumably form following rules, patterns, templates. To maintain an identifiable shape and size (even if size changes) the inflow must be balanced by an equivalent measurable storage and/or outflow - as in humans - or stars - or trees. Given the extraordinary example below of a bacteria "eating" electrons, is that eating/ absorbing process the basis of gravity? If so - there is nothing "dead" in our universe of identifiable things; all are busy eating or being eaten - at a rate which defines their gravity? Maybe?



UPDATE 30 JULY 2014

ELECTRON BACTERIA

This article below, copied (my apologies) from the excellent New Scientist magazine, of 16 July 2014, interests me. It seems very important to my musings about Life, The Universe & Everything in general, and to puzzling over Gravity in particular. The link to gravity is via my thought that all phenomena are dissipative entities. We humans and everything that manifests in the universe, absorb energy and excrete it, over our very short (humans) or very long (protons) lifetimes. In the process everything retains identity, though changes occur throughout their lives. It seems that matter that manifests gravity may have energy and mass "falling" into it continuously. If so, to maintain identity, the mass that falls in must be expelled equivalently.

I am also fascinated by the idea of templates, which order the energy into the shape and identity of the phenomena. Human templates have been tracked back to DNA, but non-living (as defined by us) objects also form into predictable shapes - and sizes; while the dissipative processes continue. The Sun is such an object - which inarguably has gravity and which is probably continually dissipative. Is gravity the same force as absorption? These electron "eating" bacteria absorb energy which we can measure in electrons - are they mini-Suns? Could we measure their gravitational attraction? Would it match the mass of the consumed electrons?

More information on these immaterial bacteria and more pondering required.

http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn25894-meet-the-electric-life-forms-that-live-on-pure-energy.html#.U8kpupRdXh4

Meet the electric life forms that live on pure energy

·                17:08 16 July 2014 by Catherine Brahic

·                Magazine issue 2978Subscribe and save

·                For similar stories, visit the Micro-organisms Topic Guide

Unlike any other life on Earth, these extraordinary bacteria use energy in its purest form – they eat and breathe electrons – and they are everywhere

STICK an electrode in the ground, pump electrons down it, and they will come: living cells that eat electricity. We have known bacteria to survive on a variety of energy sources, but none as weird as this. Think of Frankenstein's monster, brought to life by galvanic energy, except these "electric bacteria" are very real and are popping up all over the place.

Unlike any other living thing on Earth, electric bacteria use energy in its purest form – naked electricity in the shape of electrons harvested from rocks and metals. We already knew about two types, Shewanella and Geobacter. Now, biologists are showing that they can entice many more out of rocks and marine mud by tempting them with a bit of electrical juice. Experiments growing bacteria on battery electrodes demonstrate that these novel, mind-boggling forms of life are essentially eating and excreting electricity.

That should not come as a complete surprise, says Kenneth Nealson at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles. We know that life, when you boil it right down, is a flow of electrons: "You eat sugars that have excess electrons, and you breathe in oxygen that willingly takes them." Our cells break down the sugars, and the electrons flow through them in a complex set of chemical reactions until they are passed on to electron-hungry oxygen.

In the process, cells make ATP, a molecule that acts as an energy storage unit for almost all living things. Moving electrons around is a key part of making ATP. "Life's very clever," says Nealson. "It figures out how to suck electrons out of everything we eat and keep them under control." In most living things, the body packages the electrons up into molecules that can safely carry them through the cells until they are dumped on to oxygen.

"That's the way we make all our energy and it's the same for every organism on this planet," says Nealson. "Electrons must flow in order for energy to be gained. This is why when someone suffocates another person they are dead within minutes. You have stopped the supply of oxygen, so the electrons can no longer flow."

The discovery of electric bacteria shows that some very basic forms of life can do away with sugary middlemen and handle the energy in its purest form – electrons, harvested from the surface of minerals. "It is truly foreign, you know," says Nealson. "In a sense, alien."

Nealson's team is one of a handful that is now growing these bacteria directly on electrodes, keeping them alive with electricity and nothing else – neither sugars nor any other kind of nutrient. The highly dangerous equivalent in humans, he says, would be for us to power up by shoving our fingers in a DC electrical socket.

To grow these bacteria, the team collects sediment from the seabed, brings it back to the lab, and inserts electrodes into it.

First they measure the natural voltage across the sediment, before applying a slightly different one. A slightly higher voltage offers an excess of electrons; a slightly lower voltage means the electrode will readily accept electrons from anything willing to pass them off. Bugs in the sediments can either "eat" electrons from the higher voltage, or "breathe" electrons on to the lower-voltage electrode, generating a current. That current is picked up by the researchers as a signal of the type of life they have captured.

"Basically, the idea is to take sediment, stick electrodes inside and then ask 'OK, who likes this?'," says Nealson.

 

At the Goldschmidt geoscience conference in Sacramento, California, last month, Shiue-lin Li of Nealson's lab presented results of experiments growing electricity breathers in sediment collected from Santa Catalina harbour in California. Yamini Jangir, also from the University of Southern California, presented separate experiments which grew electricity breathers collected from a well in Death Valley in the Mojave Desert in California.

Over at the University of Minnesota in St Paul, Daniel Bond and his colleagues have published experiments showing that they could grow a type of bacteria that harvested electrons from an iron electrode (mBio, doi.org/tqg). That research, says Jangir's supervisor Moh El-Naggar, may be the most convincing example we have so far of electricity eaters grown on a supply of electrons with no added food.

But Nealson says there is much more to come. His PhD student Annette Rowe has identified up to eight different kinds of bacteria that consume electricity. Those results are being submitted for publication.

Nealson is particularly excited that Rowe has found so many types of electric bacteria, all very different to one another, and none of them anything likeShewanella or Geobacter. "This is huge. What it means is that there's a whole part of the microbial world that we don't know about."

Discovering this hidden biosphere is precisely why Jangir and El-Naggar want to cultivate electric bacteria. "We're using electrodes to mimic their interactions," says El-Naggar. "Culturing the 'unculturables', if you will." The researchers plan to install a battery inside a gold mine in South Dakota to see what they can find living down there.

Read full article

Continue reading page |1|2

 

NASA is also interested in things that live deep underground because such organisms often survive on very little energy and they may suggest modes of life in other parts of the solar system.

Electric bacteria could have practical uses here on Earth, however, such as creating biomachines that do useful things like clean up sewage or contaminated groundwater while drawing their own power from their surroundings. Nealson calls them self-powered useful devices, or SPUDs.

Practicality aside, another exciting prospect is to use electric bacteria to probe fundamental questions about life, such as what is the bare minimum of energy needed to maintain life.

For that we need the next stage of experiments, says Yuri Gorby, a microbiologist at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, New York: bacteria should be grown not on a single electrode but between two. These bacteria would effectively eat electrons from one electrode, use them as a source of energy, and discard them on to the other electrode.

Gorby believes bacterial cells that both eat and breathe electrons will soon be discovered. "An electric bacterium grown between two electrodes could maintain itself virtually forever," says Gorby. "If nothing is going to eat it or destroy it then, theoretically, we should be able to maintain that organism indefinitely."

It may also be possible to vary the voltage applied to the electrodes, putting the energetic squeeze on cells to the point at which they are just doing the absolute minimum to stay alive. In this state, the cells may not be able to reproduce or grow, but they would still be able to run repairs on cell machinery. "For them, the work that energy does would be maintaining life – maintaining viability," says Gorby.

How much juice do you need to keep a living electric bacterium going? Answer that question, and you've answered one of the most fundamental existential questions there is.

This article appeared in print under the headline "The electricity eaters"

Leader: "Spark of life revisited thanks to electric bacteria"

 

Wire in the mud

Electric bacteria come in all shapes and sizes. A few years ago, biologists discovered that some produce hair-like filaments that act as wires, ferrying electrons back and forth between the cells and their wider environment. They dubbed them microbial nanowires.

Lars Peter Nielsen and his colleagues at Aarhus University in Denmark have found that tens of thousands of electric bacteria can join together to form daisy chains that carry electrons over several centimetres – a huge distance for a bacterium only 3 or 4 micrometres long. It means that bacteria living in, say, seabed mud where no oxygen penetrates, can access oxygen dissolved in the seawater simply by holding hands with their friends.

Such bacteria are showing up everywhere we look, says Nielsen. One way to find out if you're in the presence of these electron munchers is to put clumps of dirt in a shallow dish full of water, and gently swirl it. The dirt should fall apart. If it doesn't, it's likely that cables made of bacteria are holding it together.

Nielsen can spot the glimmer of the cables when he pulls soil apart and holds it up to sunlight (see video).

 

It's more than just a bit of fun. Early work shows that such cables conduct electricity about as well as the wires that connect your toaster to the mains. That could open up interesting research avenues involving flexible, lab-grown biocables.

-- 



UPDATE 8 JULY 2014.



My holiday reading: Both these books claim to have found a new Standard Model and the fundamental building blocks of the universe:



In THE SPEED OF MASS -  A new look at relativity - Philip J Morgan claims to create a new Standard Model and says among his other ideas that (7) Gravity is the same as the electromagnetic force that holds an electron around the nucleus of an atom; it is not caused by the bending of space time. (8) Black holes far from being the mass eating monsters of current theory are the mothers of galaxies. Galaxies are formed from vacuum fluctuations in pairs of matter and anti-matter galaxies (9) I paraphrase - Hubble expansion is actually galaxies shrinking as they lose mass, thus increasing the distance between them. I had great difficulty following the author's logic and in dealing with the lack of punctuation.

In EVERYTHING IS PHYSICS - Book 3 - Particle physics and the quarks revealed - the author Dr Andrew Worsley, Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society, is lyrical about the beauty, elegance, obviousness and natural symmetry of the mathematics underlying the aesthetic universe and particle physics. He lifts "the shrouds of mystery" which surrounds his subjects, by taking us back to "first principles" and by positing a fundamental unit /particle that is 100 billion billion times smaller than Planck's smallest unit. Dr Worsley then multiplies this tiniest of units by a "harmonic quintessence" of the speed of light - and with clear mathematical logic, printed throughout the book, he shows that all phenomena are built with these tiniest of units, dubbed "Quintessential Mass Quantum". Sadly, my maths is not up to the standard required to assess his workings, but I soldiered on through the book which I found quite readable and it has some neat histories of physics - including of quarks - with interesting quotations and anecdotes. He links his harmonics and quintessence to musical scales and hence to String Theory (which he sees as failing). All is focused on the electron as the central and primary particle - from which all other matter is made or derived (I think). All is harmonics and wavelengths. Although unable to follow his arguments I quite liked the idea of his tiny Quintessential Mass Quantum, which at times seem to be behaving like the fundamental particles that I speculate about in my EIG concept, where colliding light waves spin into vortexes to form matter - perhaps quarks. He devotes chapter 8, Vortex Harmonics, to this topic. It would help, as it is the foundation of the book, if I knew what a "harmonic quintessence of the speed of light" means.



I was not able to comprehend either of these two radical books sufficiently to amend my own theory. I might re-visit some paragraphs in Dr Worlsey's well informed, wide ranging work.

***********

UPDATE - 29 May 2014. - "THE HIGGS FIELD DOES NOT CREATE GRAVITY"



Picking the bones out of the Royal Society, Pall Mall, UK - Lecture 20th May 2014 - Professors Ben Allanach, John Ellis, Tara Shears, Terry Watts - Chairman Alok Jha.

Reply 21 May - Dear Noel

 

Thanks a lot, and we're really glad you enjoyed the event last night. I've tried to answer your questions briefly below.


Q1 - I assume that Higgs Bosons do not exist today and only existed briefly just after The Big Bang?

 

Yes


Q2 - So there were no Higgs Bosons (snowflakes) with us in the hall last night? 

 

Basically no, only insofar as they are popping in and out of the "seething vacuum"


Q3 - But the Higgs Field (snowfield) did and does suffuse the hall and the entire universe - somewhat like the CMB? 



Yes.

About F4 below:

Strictly, it's going up from 8 thousand billion electronvolts to 14 thousand billion... so not quite a doubling (but roughly)

 

All the best,

Ben


What I thought I heard last night that was new to me was:


F1). The colliding protons impact at about 280,00 kps


F2). Vacuum quantum fluctuations might add mass to the CERN-made Higgs Bosons (and other particles).


F3). The LHC has collected only 1% of the available (now or in the near future) data.
F4). You are doubling the power of CERN.

F5). Proposed - Super symmetric particles probably decay into dark matter.

F6). The Higgs Field does not create gravity.


F7). Dark Matter and Dark Energy most probably do exist.


F8). The Higgs field adds mass only to the force carrier particles. Human mass includes a "fingernail-full" of Higgs-enhanced particles.


F9). An uneasy cooperative symbiotic truce exists between airy theorists and solid engineers.

You most probably know of the Imperial College 2014 plan to collide high power lasers to create matter - electrons and positrons; originally postulated in 1934? For me this could resurrect that great free radical, Professor Fred Hoyle and his Steady State Theory.   

·                     MORE ON GRAVITY - 4

·                      


 In the early 90's I met (now Sir) Tim Berners Lee on the Oxford-Heathrow bus and he told me of his hyper-links project at CERN. 



Finally - do you take turns to pedal the CERN dynamos to power the LHC? 



Thank you again for a most illuminating, stimulating and enjoyable lecture.



Regards

Noel Hodson

 

MORE ON GRAVITY - 4

UPDATE - 19 May 2014. WOW! - HOW ON EARTH DID I MISS THIS VITAL EIG MATTER? - in 1934 Gregory Breit and John Wheeler worked out that photons could collide with sufficient energy to make electron-positron pairs, which have mass and are therefore matter. In 1997 the idea was tested using powerful lasers at the Stanford Linear Accelerator, albeit including a massive beam of electrons from "outside" the creation zone that collided with "green laser light" and changed its nature. And this year it is being re-tested at Imperial College, London  by a team led by Oliver Pike, using very much more powerful colliding lasers - and a speck of prepared gold - called a Huhlraun (German for empty space). It seems that a Huhlraun is a man-made tiny tube or perhaps a sphere, with a tiny opening that focuses the beam/s. Such devices were used in the first A-Bombs to direct the initial forces that triggered the secondary stage/s. This gives a mechanism for my EIG colliding photons (which I was not previously aware of) that in turn make primary particles - fractals of matter - spinning straw into gold - that form quarks - that form protons and neutrons - that form stable atoms. EIG - Expansion is Gravity

If photons can be spun into electrons-positrons, it begs the question "are electrons material? do they have mass?" It seems that science is unanimous in agreeing that electrons have mass and are particles and emit waves of energy - electrons are wavicles.  This modest,anonymous scientific commentator, argues that quarks are not merely constructed from electrons-positrons but indeed are electron-positrons - and make protons. He speculates that his construct explains the missing mass-energy from protons and neutrons. Protons are the solid building blocks of atoms that have a lifetime far longer than we think and calculate (by winding back Hubble Expansion) that the universe has existed. In human terms we can regard protons as (almost) immortal spheres-waves of matter. It would seem, as I have long puzzled over and suspected - that electrons are photons within matter. Release electrons from the grip of matter and they fly off as photons (or propagate at the "speed" of light).

And what about the disgraced, despised, silenced, gagged theories of the Electric Universe? Coming round full circle to gravity, at the macro level - in our search for the theory of gravity; it is calculated from astronomical observations and measurements that galaxies are missing 80% to 90% of the mass /gravity required to hold them together. And we do not of course know what causes gravity or how it is transmitted. Is it indeed, an unshielded aspect of the electrical forces that we know so well - and which the bound, gagged and expelled scientists who dare raise the possibility that weak and feeble gravity is a minor factor in creating galaxies etc. compared to electromagnetic forces.


And wherefore The Impenetrable Higgs Boson? Isn't it dubbed the God Particle that "confers mass" onto particles? More explanation please Professor Higgs.



And what does this imply for Hoyle's Steady State Theory? For his idea that particles are constantly created in the vast empty vacuums of space? Can we revive Fred Hoyle from his premature sleep and ask him to comment? Did the Big Bang really bang?



Any road up - you can imagine how pleased I am as a non-scientist observer of science to find that one of my central speculations - how to spin straw into gold - to compress energy into matter has since 1935 been on the respectable scientific agenda and been demonstrated by applying one of our new fangled inventions - lasers (once called a technology looking for an application).  Having been ignorant of these 80 year old developments, in spite of looking diligently for such information, my suggestion to scientists is do more for "intelligent cooperation".

**************

UPDATE - 17 May 2014.  BOOM! - New Scientist 17 May 2014 "There at the birth" ...of the Big Bang Theory - Jim Peebles recounts witnessing the formation of the Big Bang Theory from 1964. It eventually replaced Fred Hoyle's Steady State Theory - demonstrating a single point of matter creation (a single White Hole) and energy dispersal instead of Hoyle's idea that particles of matter are created in the voids in all locations at all times - in a Hubble expanding universe. The Big Bang Theory - supplemented by the necessary theory of "Inflation" was largely driven by the discovery of the ubiquitous Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at 2 degrees Kelvin (2 degrees above absolute zero - minus 232 degrees Celsius - TV screen snow)



Although not crucial either way - Big Bang or Steady State Continual Creation - to my EIG theory, my suspicious, doubting and cynical nature which was triggered aged 6 by resisting illogical but infallible Catholic indoctrination, still leaves room for Hoyle and questions The Big Bang (with Inflation). Perhaps when science finds a sense of direction pointing to The Universal Center, whence the Big Bang emerged, I will be more believing of the impenetrable, reverse engineered Big Bang mathematics and be able to join the One True Faith. Until then - we should keep open minds.

 

If, as in my EIG, the universal essence suffusing all space-time is the Aether-Matrix - holographic spheres at every point, scale and location that mirror the entire universe (intersecting light-waves reflecting the whole universe wherever we place an eye or an observing instrument), then the Aether-Matrix would also glow with a background temperature. Philosophers of science, like 1950's Jesuits, "must work harder" to prove they are infallible.



*******

More thoughts in the endless search for the causes of gravity. I've been reading GRAVITY by Brian Clegg, 2012 (links below), a book for non-scientists which I can almost completely follow - with an unaccustomed stretch of my concentration.  

 

(Previous article in this series GRAVITY WAVES - WHAT'S THE FUSS? )

 

 

In GRAVITY, an excellent book, Brian Clegg mentions in Chapter 2, only to dismiss, Mark McCutcheon, The Final Theory: Re-Thinking Our Scientific Legacy, (see Notes) in which Mark apparently bases gravity on the expansion of matter. Not having access to that book, I assume from Clegg's brief comments that Mark's idea is that surfaces of matter, such as the Earth's surface, accelerate "upwards" due to expansion, which silly Earth creatures such as ourselves feel as gravity - and that the same is true for all matter, however large or small. A few calculations, even at my low level of  teenage school arithmetic, show the theory to be impractical and such effect wholly detectable, if Earth were expanding and accelerating at 32 feet (say 10 meters) per second - per second.

 

I stress that my EIG - Expansion is Gravity, is quite a different concept to what I suppose is Mark's theory. EIG proposes that Hubble expansion expands space-time or "pure energy" the basic fabric of the observable universe, at 

6.819E-19 percent(0.000,000,000,000,000,000,068,19%),

of any specified sphere, per second per second: which is a minuscule rate of change, more fitting for the observed subtle power of gravity. This is the rate at which the Hubble Universe expands. My EIG idea dates from 1992 and has been disseminated via the internet since 1998. It is this tiny, persistent, universal attenuation of space-time that I imagine "attracts" energy - light - to balance the energy field; everywhere, perpetually, on every scale, which causes gravity and creates fundamental particles of matter (maybe quarks).

 

Brian Clegg also comments (Page 95) on a question I put to a senior physicist a couple of years ago "If I dug a vacuumed tunnel from North Pole to South Pole on the Moon and jumped down it; what would occur? When would I turn to go up instead of down?" and Clegg gives the same professorial answer, but applied to the Earth;  a sort of bungee rope see-saw oscillation would happen, until minor frictions brought me to a halt. On reflection, Clegg's answer triggers other questions. As I fall down towards the center of the planet, the mass of the planet would relatively move around me; at the center - the bottom, there would be far more mass "above" me than immediately below. In falling, would not the gravity of the mass around me pull me back up - be a brake on my plummeting to the center? 

 

Is THE CENTER, from and to which all Newtonian gravity is calculated, actually the center of gravity? Surely not - the center of gravity, any center of gravity, must eternally oscillate; the moment it is located, it will attract matter or energy which will move towards it, which movement will re-locate the center of gravity - ad-infinitum. Its easier to envisage the effect in the molten center of the Earth. In our turbulent, cycling Solar System, all centers of gravity of all things must perpetually oscillate - creating additional energy /mass and tidal forces, on all scales, at all points.

 

This unavoidable oscillation of centers of gravity at the heart of every mass, of any size, mirrors, perhaps, the unstoppable sub-atomic quivering at Absolute Zero (-273 Centigrade) which otherwise freezes atoms and all matter, in its tracks.

 

On page 150, Brian Clegg kindly explains to me (at last - and about time too) why non-scientists find "simple and beautiful" maths formulas impossible. Quite simply the authors never cite the units of anything - and behind, say (x-y = x+abc) lie vast sheets of hidden calculations that underlie the 'x' and the 'y' etc. The academic purpose, I assume, is pure bloody-minded obscurantism. I once wrote to Oxford's top maths professor, Marcus du Sautoy, suggesting a common global maths alphabet and dictionary to make formulas accessible to say, 5 billion people, instead of today's handful of, often mad, specialists; would get all unresolved maths problems solved in a week - or so.

 

Clegg clearly explains and illuminates Special Relativity with new metaphors and similes - and introduces, to me, gravitomagnetism (What's that? Read the book) and explains Frame Dragging. He also corrects my understanding of the weak nuclear force, which I imagined I knew holds the electrons/cloud in orbit; it transpires that the weak nuclear force acts on sub-atomic particles to keep them a fraction of the diameter of a proton apart - and - is the trigger that flips quarks inside protons to convert protons to neutrons. Clegg  also reminds me throughout that it is NOT Space that is distorted by mass to 'make' gravity - but Space-Time. Movements in any of these 4 space-time dimensions can trigger mass moving towards mass - and all things are moving through Time.

 

In all - GRAVITY is an accessible book which brings for me several new factors - in the hunt for gravity. Well worth the risibly low price for such a useful and scholarly work. It does not yet cause me to reach for my EIG Theory and amend it. 

 

****************

THE UNIVERSE IS ONLY SPACETIME by John Archibald Wheeler.

 

The next paper I read is of a different order. The Universe is Only Space Time - by John Archibald Wheeler (2012) races along the extreme outer edge of my ability to follow the logic. Wheeler sprinkles his dense, taut text with mathematics, which helpfully do state the units of measure and which he explains in English words - and which therefore with great effort I can just about grasp, at least sufficiently to not lose track of his arguments. 

 

This challenging paper might give me cause to revise and update EIG. Excitingly - if I interpret it accurately - Wheeler produces arguments in favor of what I call the Aether-Matrix; harking back two centuries to when science decided that space must be a medium that carries light. The Aether was abandoned  finally when it was misreported that Einstein said it didn't exist. What he actually said was that he didn't need the Aether for his calculations. We now summon it back from the past for another incarnation.

 

My EIG supposes that the Aether-Matrix is formed by the intersecting of all the light signals (electromagnetic waves) from all phenomena from the whole observable universe, which are visible to observers on every scale at all points in the universe and which are dynamically informed and reformed by every event in the universe. It is these undeniably present energy waves and fields that collide in Hubble attenuated spaces /spheres to form fundamental primary particles (Spin straw into gold / Higgs Boson ). We humans, ephemeral creatures of light, existing for a meagre three score years and ten, broadcast our every movement and thought into the Aether-Matrix and thus constantly re-form it. The data thus created, a record of everything, and holographically reproduced across the entire universe on every scale, may hold the data-dense templates that inform delicate complex structures such as DNA. 

 

Wheeler calculates the "stiffness" of such a medium and compares the energy content of space-time (energy density of a vacuum) when calculated from the Quantum Electrodynamics theories (particle physics) or from General Relativity (astrophysics). He finds that answers from the two systems differ by 10E+122 (1 followed by 122 zeros) joules per cubic meter - an unimaginably enormous number. (Read the Book)

 

This, I think, and the first time I have heard the detail of it, is the heart of the irreconcilable disparity between the brilliant and wholly tested and proven Standard Model (of atoms etc) and the equally brilliant, wholly observed theories of cosmology /astrophysics. It is hoped that coming to understand gravity and its equally mysterious partner, inertia (centers of gravity?), will bridge the two sets of theories and enable science to figure out a TOE - a Theory of Everything.  

 

I will re-read both these texts and think on it. More, later. In the meantime - we have here sketched out Oscillating-Centers-of-Gravity, which might prove to be important. I must also read Stuart Clarke in New Scientist 26 April 14 - Page 32, "The end of the beginning"...

...Done that. Stuart Clark further explains what the BICEP2 Polar instruments data might mean for "Gravity Waves" and he raises more doubts about the basis assumptions. Did the Big Bang happen? If so - when? Do gravity waves exist?



My EIG ascribes gravity to attenuation of the stuff of the universe due to constant Hubble expansion, which in turn allows or enables or attracts light to fill the attenuated spheres. As such, science should be searching for the absence of something, not for ghostly waves and "carrier" particles labelled "gravitons". Though such partially evacuated spheres would perhaps draw universal energy inwards, in waves. EIG also sketches explanations for Dark Matter and Dark Energy. Three for the price of one. Buy now to avoid disappointment.

I will revisit this blog after re-reading the books below. 


**************
LINKS

www.noelhodson.com/index_files/Life-Universe-Everything-8Mar2011.pdf

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7dmvCsQly2c

 

 

INDEX - LIFE, UNIVERSE, EVERYTHING - JAN13
FUSION, GRAVITY, INERTIA, LIFEFORCE.   
DISSIPATIVE PHENOMENA (2)
INDEX - HIGGS BOSON
INDEX - LIFE, UNIVERSE, EVERYTHING - JAN - DEC 201...
BRIAN COX AND TALES OF DOOM
FUSION, GRAVITY, INERTIA, LIFEFORCE.
GRAVITY AND IMMORTALITY

GRAVITY - by Brian Clegg   http://www.brianclegg.net/gravity.html
Everything we know is governed by four physical forces, but there is only one of them that is immediately obvious - gravity. Although ludicrously weak compared to the other forces (a tiny magnet can hold up a piece of metal against the gravitational attraction of the whole Earth), gravity permeates our everyday life and being. We begin with humanity's earliest ideas of how we remain stuck to the ground - a significant consideration when you realize that despite the myths, educated people have known the Earth was a sphere since the time of the Ancient Greeks.

Along the way we'll see how the Arabic scholars explained the force of gravity, why Galileo didn't need to drop balls off the tower of Pisa, exactly how Newton came to his conclusions and why he refused to 'frame hypotheses' about gravity.

We will explore the concept of action at a distance, and see how Einstein transformed our understanding of gravitation with general relativity and consider whether the graviton will ever be discovered. We will see how birds, bees and rockets seem to defy gravity, and whether the concept of anti-gravity can move from pure science fiction to possible fact.

Gravity never fails to fascinate...


*******************************

john@onlyspacetime.com  John Archibald Wheeler 2012.

http://onlyspacetime.com/Chapter_4.pdf

"If spacetime can propagate waves such as gravitational waves or dipole waves, it implies that

spacetime must have elasticity.  This elasticity requires the ability to store and return energy as

the wave propagates.  The medium itself must have energy density.  The quantum mechanical

model  of  space  is  filled  with  a  sea  of  energetic  fluctuations  dipole  waves.    If  these  are

visualized as energetic waves in spacetime, then a new wave can be visualized as compressing

and  expanding  these  pre-existing  waves.    If  this  new  wave  causes  the  pre-existing  waves  to

slightly change  their  frequency and dimensions as  they are being compressed and expanded,

then this picture provides the necessary elasticity and energy storage to spacetime. "

                 

"This  book  proposes  a  quantum mechanical  model  of  spacetime  where  the  energy  density  of

dipole waves in spacetime is 10 to the power of  113 J/m3 and the implied pressure is 10 to the power of 113 N/m2.  Therefore the picture  that  emerges  is  that  the  quantum  mechanical  model  of  spacetime  not  only  has  a tremendous  energy  density,  but  it  also  is  capable  of  exerting  any  pressure  up  to  Planck pressure of about 10 to the power of 113 N/m3.   If  the pressure is unequal on opposite sides of an object,  then this  unequal  pressure  would  be  considered  a  force.    Furthermore,  this  force  could  be considered  either  an  attractive  or  repulsive  force  depending  on  the  direction  of  the  object “causing”  the  mysterious  force.    Later  in  this  chapter  it  will  be  shown  that  the maximum pressure that spacetime can exert for a particular size object is the limiting factor 

for the size radius of a black hole. Also, all fundamental particles will be shown to possess energy density

and pressure  that is  stabilized by an interaction with  the energy density and pressure  of  the

dipole waves in spacetime. " 

 

john@onlyspacetime.com  John Archibald Wheeler 2012.

 Noel Hodson   No comments: 

 

Fusion, Gravity, Inertia, Lifeforce 21 Jan 2013.

Monday, 21 January 2013

FUSION, GRAVITY, INERTIA, LIFEFORCE.

ISAAC NEWTON AND HIS APPLE.
GRAVITY CALCULATIONS USE "THE NEWTON"
AS A UNIT - WHICH IS THE WEIGHT OF A SMALL APPLE.

Listening last week to a brilliant young physicist, who is working to bring us unlimited clean energy from atomic nuclear fusion at Culham Laboratories, UK, struggling on an annual budget of just a few hundred million dollars; I learned that his team uses electricity to heat a fissionable, or fusion-able, element to 10 million degrees, which forms a plasma hotter than the centre of the Sun, which they capture in a magnetic “bottle”. The powerful magnetic fields of the bottle retain the very slippery few grams of hot plasma for a few minutes before it “leaks” away, while 50% of the energy used to make the plasma is now, triumphantly, recovered in useful form – to heat water – to drive turbines – to make electricity – to energise our society. One day in the future, fusion power will be contained, controlled and channelled; and all our energy problems will be solved.

ALSO READ -  GRAVITY MASS HIGGS AND BABIES

 

How? I asked …does the Sun, a fusion star, make and maintain its scaldingly hot plasma? – The Sun, I was told, is rather good at holding in the energy. I assumed it does so by applying Gravity. Which brings me back to asking myself – What the devil is Gravity? 

PS - 16 May 2013 - This horizontal gravity has implications for my earlier question, "why does all matter crowd to the centre of any object, planet or star?" And, "what happens to me if I jump into a hole dug through, say the inert Moon, from north to south poles?" Horizontal mass such as the polar ice will affect such a fall /climb. Answers on a postcard please. http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn17134-flood-risk-from-antarctic-ice-overestimated.html 



 New science upsets calculations on sea level rise, climate change ...

1.                   www.theregister.co.uk/2012/.../sea_levels_new_science_climate_change/

Nov 28, 2012 – New science upsets calculations on sea level rise, climate change ... from the data produced by the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) spacecraft, ... Meanwhile the Antarctic ice cap is actually getting bigger, ...

 

Newton’s maths, and our everyday engineering experience, proves that gravity works from the centre of any massive (small or large) body. Thus, when rocket scientists calculate the path of a rocket from moving Earth to moving Mars, influenced by the gravity of the Sun, their calculations are from the very centres of the planets, the exact centre of the Sun and the centre of the moving rocket. And the maths, Newton’s formulae, work precisely, and the rocket gets to Mars. 

 

The urge of sub-atomic particles, atoms, molecules, gases and lumps of metal and us to “fall” to the centre of any body (mass) they happen to meet, is a mystery. Why make for the centre? It is this determination for all things to go to the center of mass that creates the pressure, that creates the heat, that creates the plasma, that creates, expels and propels Light, that warms and enables life on Earth - and probably elsewhere.

If we empty the entire Universe for a moment’s thought, and revert it to pure massless energy, Light, which is currently deemed to have no mass at all, and thus no Gravity (but as some-thing rather than no-thing it must have a very slight mass) – and in this empty space we allow the creation of a single particle, using the Light collision method in my TOE -

LIFE THE UNIVERSE AND EVERYTHING 2011: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7dmvCsQly2c   OR AT

www.noelhodson.com/index_files/Life-Universe-Everything-8Mar2011.pdf

…then the mass of the spinning particle, collects pure energy from a large sphere around it (E=MC2), continues to spin (like a tornado – not a virtual mathematician's spin) and continues to exist in a dynamic, not static Universe, as the product of three forces: Attraction (as the sphere of pure energy “falls” onto and into the mass), Repulsion (as the spinning surface repel each other) and Expansion (as Hubble expansion operates continually – NB. Hubble Expansion is not theoretical; it is known from decades of scientific observation, backed up with impeccable maths). However, when particles meet in empty, free space to form atoms and planets etc. we can realistically imagine them congregating in a lattice – as equal partners – not in a compressed mass, such as the Sun. It is the unexpected (self) compression of mass jostling to reach the centre that heats the material that forms the plasma in the process of nuclear fusion. (If we dismiss theories of The Electric Universe).

 

So, what is so damn attractive about the centre? What is Gravity? Einstein's is a circular explanation to say that mass sits at the bottom of a space-time bowl into which other mass falls.Newton offers no explanation, he simply accepts Gravity. I now see Gravity as a continuation and product of the tornado spin that, I imagine without evidence, forms the primary particles from colliding light beams.

 

INERTIA AND CENTRES OF GRAVITY.

 

Imagine two such primary particles meeting. They are both dynamic entities, not static, and both are emptying large spheres of energy, which makes the mass and accords with Newton’s calculation, of attraction reducing with the square of the distance etc. They are the smallest things in the Universe, so only they can act on or interfere with each other. They thus are “permanent” masses. Hubble Expansion enlarges them continuously and so they continue to draw in energy to momentary, partial vacuums. When they touch, their surface vacuums pull them together but the surfaces rotating at 300,000x300,000 kps or C squared (tornado like), keep them apart. The two are now in a dynamic push-pull relationship; their twin-system is expanding. These two primary particles orbit each other with no external impedance – between them is a real and a mathematically calculable, centre of gravity.

 

We humans naturally understand and utilise centres of gravity. When we clothe ourselves in a leopard skin leotard and swing on liana vines through the trees with a loud whooping sound, we control and balance the ever changing centre of gravity between our bronzed muscular bodies and planet Earth. When we miscalculate just where the centre of gravity is or will be in the next second, we overbalance and probably plunge unwillingly to the new centre of gravity, face down on the planetary surface. Our two primary particles are in a similar relationship – and together they are whirling round in their own private world.

 

LAGRANGE POINTS - A contour plot of the effective potential due to gravity and the centrifugal force of a two-body system in a rotating frame of reference. The arrows indicate the gradients of the potential around the five Lagrange points — downhill toward them (red) or away from them (blue). Counterintuitively, the L4 and L5points are the high points of the potential. At the points themselves these forces are balanced.

Now let us add a multitude of primary particles, all spinning, all dynamic, all growing second by second. As they interact, they make large congregations, each of which has a dynamically changing centre of gravity – their own centre. They are oriented by these centres to THE centre of gravity which forms and can be found between all the congregations. All the spinning entities of groups of primary particles are in dynamic relationship with all other particles, through the mechanism of winding pure energy or light into matter or mass. These centres of gravity relationships constitute the Inertia of the Universe. All matter or masses are in relationship to and are fixed in place, subject to their dynamic spins, by Inertia. Inertia provides the capacity of orientation. (LAGRANGE POINTS are the counter balances to centres of gravity. They are locations between planets and the Sun where gravity from all the masses is balanced and so has no gravitational pull in a particular direction. We are parking observation satellites in such non-gravity locations. Lagrange points move if other masses enter the region.
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lagrangian_point

A very large congregation, such as the Sun, in which the primary particles have been forged into Hydrogen, Helium and trace metals, comprises googolplexes of primary particles in such relationships, all spinning, all continually attracting energy to themselves and all expanding in size, courtesy of Hubble. They jointly and severally clear a large space around the mass (the Sun) which space, in turn, is being constantly refilled by in-falling pure energy from The Field. This never-cleared space surrounding masses is Einstein’s bowl, his bending of space time. The Sun has a centre of gravity, which shifts dynamically with every addition and subtraction of mass to and from the Sun. Every primary particle also has its own centre of gravity and all groups have centres of gravity. All entities are spinning and all are Hubble-expanding. As primary particles are crowded by others, they are limited in drawing in only pure massless energy and their surface vacuums and emptying spheres are refilled, not by pure energy, but by neighbouring particles. The particles are continuously falling into each others’ Hubble expanding spheres – irrespective of size or scale. This in-falling is centralised by the many centres of gravity throughout the mass – and ultimately by the single centre of gravity at or near the heart of the Sun – which is also expanding.

 

But, as we experience in our daily lives, this jostling and crowding of primary particles squeezes out particles, with mass, at very high speeds – and thus with very high energies; which we experience as heat and solar radiation – the solar wind. Thus, the Sun and all masses, large or small, dynamically grow, compress and expel energy and matter. Thus, large masses attract matter and energy (which are interchangeable) that falls onto or into the mass, and then the compression forces matter and energy to be expelled as dust and radiation. In this way, the Sun and all large masses have a pulse - like living organisms, they are dissipative entities - dynamic, never static.

All masses are held in place or orbits by Inertia, the combined centres of gravity of the entire Universe, until immensely energetic changes occur in matter or in the pure energy field that are powerful enough to shift Inertia and enable new forms.

 

This is not a circular argument – its basic given assumptions (axioms) are just two – First that the Universe exists as a field (infinite and perpetual if you like) of pure energy (from God or by accident as you like) and Second that pure energy or Light, is the building material of particles which compress the Light.

 

How these particles are made and behave is my unproven speculation, my concept, my imagination fuelled by decades of reading popular science. This blog might trigger ideas that will illuminate the Standard Model and will assist in capturing applicable fusion power. A key point is that gravity requires a continuous and regular in-falling of matter, however diffuse, onto the centre of the gravitating phenomena. I guess the mechanism that causes the in-falling is Hubble expansion - which is constant throughout the Universe. Centres of gravity and Lagrange points may appear to vary gravitational forces.

 

Perhaps a mini-black-hole at the heart of every fusion-plasma holding “bottle” will replicate the effects of Hubble expansion in a laboratory and will create controllable in-falling gravity to maintain 10 million degrees of heat, with minimal electricity input.

 



BIG-BANGS, AND GENTLE, SENTIENT FORCES – THE FIFTH FUNDAMENTAL FORCE:

 

We humans are of a size that is approximately halfway between the smallest and the largest phenomena that we know of. Perhaps our size dictates the upper and lower scales we can explore. Our Universe has massive, walloping, crashing, searing energies of terrifying inter-galactic power – but it also grows tadpoles, daises, blades of grass and babies. These latter water based life-forms are both subtle and vulnerable, and they are sentient – they can feel their environment – and they need gentle environments safe from all the shouting, burning and banging. All phenomena emerge and are organised, somehow, from the universal field of pure energy (Light). It is logical to search for the subtle energies that enable short lived bags of sea water to acquire brains, occasionally act intelligently, reproduce and to wonder at the Universe. This organising, sentient energy, is, I believe, the Life-Force; a fundamental force ranked alongside Gravity, Electro-Magnetic, Strong and Weak Nuclear forces. The organising, sentient Lifeforce is the fifth fundamental force of our Universe.  

 

My calculation of Hubble Expansion is that the Universe (Space-Time-Continuum) expands at6.819E-19 percent per second. My maths is not great, so check it out – the circumference of the observable universe, disappearing at light speed. I have not read any reasonable arguments that say that some parts of Space are shielded from this expansion.

 

This minuscule, gentle rate is almost undetectable on a human or even on a Solar System scale, but is observed by astronomers between galaxies. IF, Hubble Expansion does drive gravity, then several of the mysterious universal forces, such as Dark Matter and Dark Energy can be investigated in the light of this new factor.  Gravity would be seen as Hubble Expansion acting on every sphere from the smallest (Planck Minimum) to the largest (the entire Universe). Inertia would be the balance and dynamic tension, on every scale, between centres of gravity (foremost at the centres of large objects) of groups of orbiting and spinning masses – and Lagrange points. At the sub-atomic scale, human-scale investigations of particles will unavoidably and continually alter the centres of gravity under observation.

  

************ 

 

For a Theory of Everything, many fundamental matters remain to be understood and slotted into the jigsaw. The Standard Model of atoms and sub-atomic particles appears to be bogged down. Several top scientists say a new model or breakthrough is needed.

 

ENERGY CONVERTED INTO MATTER - The Higgs Boson and Higgs Field is a dubious discovery; first credited with “conferring mass” on other sub-atomic particles, its role and existence is now uncertain and debateable. No scientist has claimed that it was or is the mechanism that converts “pure energy” (Light) into “real” things (fundamental particles).

 

EQUIVALENCE – Einstein is credited with explaining Gravity. Part of what he proposed was to assume that Gravity and Inertia, the mysterious force that keeps everything in its place, are equivalent – and therefore perhaps equal and opposite sides of the same coin. This fundamental assumption is now being re-examined. Neither Gravity or Inertia are understood.

 

GRAVITY – Einstein pictured Gravity by comparing it to the force under the feet of a person being whisked up in an accelerating elevator or lift, far from any gravitational mass such as Earth, but experiencing the same downward pressure, as if standing on the Earth, due to the acceleration of the rising floor. The passenger would actually be experiencing the Inertia or fixed masses of the entire universe – relative to the floor’s acceleration compared to the relatively static universe. He also pictured Gravity as an infinitely large deep bowl at the bottom of which is the attractive object, such as Earth; any-thing with mass, including massless light, that enters the Earth’s bowl, no matter how distant, will eventually slide down it, to the Earth. If the falling thing is dense enough, far denser than our planet, it will continue going down until its centre (of gravity) gets to the Earth’s centre of gravity – in the centre of our planet. Einstein saw this falling object asappearing to accelerate as it falls through spheres within spheres of what I will call The Aether-Matrix surrounding the planet, each sphere equidistant from all others but those nearest the planet being shrunk (by gravity) so that the object takes less time to pass. You either need to read more about this – or need to get out more.   

 

 

 Noel Hodson   

3 comments:

1.            

Edward Ott21 January 2013 07:52

I was at a dinner party not to long ago where most of the people there were physicts PHd studends and professors and saw a yelling match break out on what is gravity. highly entertaining. great article abd great blog.

ReplyDelete

2.            

Noel Hodson22 January 2013 04:22

Edward - Thanks for your compliments and interest. At 70 I have decided to publish my lifetime conclusions - to "speak now or forever hold thy peace". Unlike professional scientists, I have nothing to lose and so can speculate. - Noel

ReplyDelete

3.            

Jacy Brean16 May 2013 07:23

Super article, Noel, and beautifully written as always! Love your science blogs!

ReplyDelete

 

 

 

HIGGS AND BABIES – 9 Sept 2013.

 

 

Letter to New Scientist - 7th September 2013.

 

Jon Butterworth’s Instant Expert,The Higgs Boson, New Scientist, 7 Sept 2013, is the clearest article I have read on The Higgs; and gives a good short summary of The Standard Model. He asks “What makes matter”?

 

My view is that there is no unbridgeable divide between energy and matter, micro and macro, there is a single universe and an organising principle which manifests in life forms and all phenomena - The Lifeforce.

 

34 WEEKS, 2 TRILLION CELLS

AN ENERGY DISSIPATIVE ORGANISM

DO WE IGNORE "THE LIFEFORCE"? 

Our daughter had a 34 weeks premature baby 11 days ago, which reminded me that a single fertilized ovum or cell, the size of a typed full-stop, drew energy from the mother to create and organize 2 trillion more cells and make a (very beautiful) new 4 lbs 10 oz life-form. He will grow into a 100 trillion celled, hairy 6ft 2in rugby prop forward and then an old man, like me; in the process of, say, 80 years, consuming 70 tons of food (energy) and several tons of air (energy) and an allegedly weightless amount of sunlight (which logically is not weightless). But, he will remain identifiable, as his template concentrates and dissipates these tons of energy.

 

It seems to me that all phenomena of every size, from Quarks to galaxies, are similarly dissipative organisations, governed by ever evolving universal templates. Where are these templates? I now think they exist and persist as data-dense (far more data-dense than DNA), legible radio (electromagnetic /light) waves in what pre-Einstein science called the Aether and which I now refer to as the Aether-Matrix.

 

The sentient baby “confers mass” on the energy it collects and integrates (all food is compressed sunlight) and dissipates, retaining enough energy to maintain its identity and integrity for 80 years – while every event in its body and brain, from quantum events, to thoughts, to punching the referee, are broadcast into the Aether-Matrix. These broadcasts are as legible and coherent as cell-phone signals, as TV and radio signals, as supernova signals. As they expand as globes from the site of any energetic event, these waves intersect with each other and with existing (older) waves in the universal energy field. These waves enable us to “see” the underlying event, the phenomena that caused the waves – from blazing Suns, quarks or so called single photons – we do not “see” the object, we detect/ receive its signal.

 

There is nowhere in space-time, in the entire universe, however apparently empty it may be, where we cannot see the entire universe, to the limits of our instruments. In any space sphere, from Planck’s minimum to the Observable Universe, each sphere is filled with a unique, “holographic”, radio-wave, data-dense “picture” of the whole, limited only by the size of sphere compared to the wavelengths observed. These holographs of cross hatched electromagnetic waves, constitute the Aether-Matrix, and, I think, hold the templates that govern and  in-form phenomena. Where the waves intersect, sub-atomic particles are formed; the type of particle we find at any such node depends on the characteristics of the waves. By following the creation by propagation of such particles, we trace a path and "see" a speeding particle - which is in fact a wave front. It is the gaps between waves and thus between nodes, that we define as the black-body quantum leap. 

 

As the baby broadcasts its presence, its signals in-form and re-form the dynamic, ever evolving Aether-Matrix. These radio forms reach to the limits of the universe and in human terms are eternal and remain legible “until the end of days”.

 

To complicate our view of the holographic Aether-Matrix and phenomenal universe, the whole is subject to Hubble-Expansion at every scale. If The Standard Model is, more realistically, re-imagined as consisting of broadcast electromagnetic spheres intersecting, instead of as particles, then Einstein’s spooky action at a distance, entangled particles, and our inability to observe without altering the particles, is perhaps explicable as the data-dense waves propagate at light speed and illuminate the intersections (make particles) which we currently interpret as particle paths. Observe (interfere with) any part of the wave-sphere, perhaps just “one-photon” strong, and the entangled particles will instantly change on each side (at any point) of the propagating sphere as we alter the wave form.

 

If all phenomena are collections of ephemeral nodes of intersecting energy waves, how is a screwdriver constructed and made to retain its hard fixed form, identity and integrity for, say, 10,000 years? Tangible, macro "real" objects, such as ourselves, have inertia (and gravity). They and their constituents resist change, despite inevitably slowly changing moment by moment - inertia resists rapid change. The observable universe resists change; despite constant change the night sky is reliably pretty much the same night after night, millennium after millennium. How pure energy (light) converts to, say, uranium, is THE central mystery for the Standard Model; how is straw spun into gold? Experiment tells us that uranium is made of light - we see it when we blow up the element in atomic bombs. We can disintegrate elements - elements as small as protons, in the LHC, but we are not able to integrate them. My view is that at the base of all sub-atomic particles, maybe quarks or even smaller, are the primary particles "fractals" which are revolving, tornado-like vortices; throughout all space. A primary vortex is formed by Hubble expansion, drawing light into a partially evacuated sphere. The light waves collide, spin and create matter - a vortex of matter is formed by in-falling light maintaining a partial vacuum (gravity) whose spin creates a revolving surface that repels other fractals; between these two forces inertia is created. Thus straw is spun into gold. The fractals spin, align, pull, push, integrate and disintegrate to form, maybe quarks (currently thought to make protons etc). Science proves that protons persist for tens of billions of years - and from them we make screwdrivers; which on human time-scales appear to be solid, unchanging and permanent. But, the (data-dense) energy waves, that make the fractals, are moment by moment re-formed and in-formed by all events in  the universe. We sentient beings are all also re-formed and in-formed moment by moment by these forces. Inertia is subject to evolution and it is in the underlying dynamic energy field (Higgs field?) that we can seek the templates that hold the data to make stuff - such as DNA - that makes the blueprints for babies. 

 

It seems to me that like my grandson, all phenomena are dissipative systems, absorbing and emitting energy, organized and governed by universal data-dense templates (maybe Higgs Field) which confer mass and persistent identity. These templates are intersecting electromagnetic broadcasting spheres which science can detect. We humans are built from or by these forces, as are sub-atomic and all phenomena. Because we are made from “the stuff of the universe” and are sentient – we have the capacity to eventually understand it.

 

I think that The Standard Model needs to be considered in the context of  Hubble-expansion, the Lifeforce, the wave formed Aether-Matrix, and babies (who do choose to be born), whose brains, as far as we know, are the most complex entities in the universe.

 

Noel Hodson, Oxford.

 

www.noelhodson.com/index_files/Life-Universe-Everything-8Mar2011.pdf 

 

LIFE-FORCE - AETHER-MATRIX

 

THE SCIENCE DELUSION

 

INDEX - LIFE, UNIVERSE, EVERYTHING - JAN13

 

CHASE THE LIGHT

 

DNA STORES YOUR LIFE 

 

RECORD RECORDS - DNA PACKS IN DATA.

 

 

EASTER BABIES & BIBLE TRUTHS

 

HIGGS BOSON AND CUSTARD

 

I NEVER ASKED TO BE BORN - THE FIFTH FORCE

 

THE LIGHT FANTASTIC – 20 MAY 2013

 

I badly need light beams /light waves /photons to have rest-mass. Which all of respected and accepted science denies.

 

Maybe the conundrum is in the way we express ourselves. Since rejecting The Aether around 1900, science has determinedly talked of “empty-space” /the void /the space-time vacuum and made fabulously correct calculations on that assumption. But space is not empty. There is nowhere, no location large or small, in this or any other imagined universe that is not criss-crossed, cross-hatched with ever changing, legible electro-magnetic light radio waves. Every possible sphere, large or small, seethes with data-carrying, energetic, stable, permanent, visible and legible signals, broadcast by every phenomenon, large or small, from single electrons to brain-waves to colliding galaxies. It is these signals that enable us via our instruments to see the universe. I think these waves and photons have energy /mass and create the dynamic structures that create dynamic inertia. I think the Victorians were not wrong; I now call it The Aether-Matrix.

 

If "weightless" photons are the primary particles - they are not massless – they must have rest-mass.  Many articles state that gravity has no effect on photons /Wavicles – but the famous observation of a solar eclipse, to prove Einstein’s theories, was of light from distant stars being curved by the gravity of the sun. Was that solar gravity tugging light beams or were they merely massless photons travelling through “curved space-time”?

 

But, the “weight” of sunlight has been demonstrated: (e.g. The difference between Lebedev's contraption, called a Nichols Radiometer, and the failed Crookes' set up was Lebedev's panels twisted on their string even in a complete vacuum. When the other contraption was totally evacuated of air, the paddles stopped. In the absence of any other force on the paddles (including heat), Lebedev finally proved that it was light pushing the paddles around.)


Four years ago while attending physics classes, I thought I read on the internet (and made notes of it) that Mathematician Mitchell Figenbaum ascribed a rest mass to the photon of 10E-49 grams. I cannot now find the article I read – nor any mention of 10E-49 grams. Contrariwise, internet searches now tell me, a thousand times over, that photons have no rest mass. I might even start to believe it.

 

The solar wind does however have weight, often referred to as the pressure of sunlight. This “wind” that streams the tails of meteors and comets away from the sun does contain particles other than “massless” photons, such as neutrinos – and presumably hydrogen and helium atoms expelled from the sun. But it is mostly photons. NASA has announced the 2014 Sunjammer mission which will deploy a sail that measures approximately 38 metres along one side with a total surface area of around 1,200 square metres, or a third of an acre. That's seven times larger than any solar sail tested in space to date.”


Citing, yet again, E=MC2 each gram of photons must compress or empty or attract energy from the ever Hubble expanding, basic, all pervasive electromagnetic field; in today's values (2013) clearing a volume of a sphere in “empty” space with a diameter of 500,000 meters or 500 kilometres (575,805,138.9118680 meters) and compacting the light to make a rest mass of 1 gram. 

 

1 gram of photons at my imaginary rest mass represents ten-thousand-billion-billion-billion-billion photons. So a single photon needs to collect the energy from a sphere of 6E-41 metres diameter; at current 2013 values (as my universe is dynamic not static and changes with time) of the energy that "empty" space contains. That is a surprisingly small sphere – so I wonder if my arithmetic is awry?

 

The essential search here is for the mechanism that turns pure energy into matter – and confers a reliable life span on the matter and the things it builds – say three-score-years-and-ten on a not totally repellent, complex walking sack of saline solution, such as me, for example. We are searching for the magic that converts ephemeral, insubstantial straw into solid, long lasting gold.  Every subatomic action in every passing micro-second in every one of my 100 trillion cells – and all of the cells’ interchanges and co-operations – and the signature signals from the whole (person) broadcasts into the field of the Aether-Matrix and thus informs and reforms the energy field.

If a photon is the product of intersecting light/ radio waves at a place or focus that compacts energy from the surrounding field, such entities subsist everywhere.  Each photon draws and holds the energy of a measurable sphere which logically must for a time contain less free-energy – the existence of a photon attenuates the space around it – it exists in a partial vacuum. I envisage the particle as a spinning vortex, a whirlwind, winding in the light field, creating a surface, with compression within and relative vacuum without.  The relative vacuums “attract” and the spinning surfaces “repel” – creating dynamic inertia.

 

The orientations of such transitional phenomena, as they combine, may account for magnetic dipoles and monopoles.

 

Light does not “travel”. Light does not “speed”. Light propagates. The energetic event we observe as light is an event that passes energy from light wave to light wave – at 300,000 KPS which is (so far) a basic quantum of our universe. This is the medium that propagates light, in wave formations that we do intuitively understand (because we are made from this stuff) and see in water, gases and all materials – even in rock. As the energy travels or spherically broadcasts it stimulates in-situ photons that we can then see – whatever the carrier wavelength. Thus the photons, in spheres surrounding an energetic event, might appear to be travelling faster than C 300,000 kilometres per second.

 

As the spinning entities we name as photons combine, they make other particles, a myriad of particles to which we ascribe a myriad of new names and properties. And the photons disappear into the transformation.

 

That’s it for now; I have written down part of what was in my head – until I realise how wrong this article is and revisit to correct it.

 

 

Massless particles [edit]

Massless particles have zero rest mass. Their relativistic mass is simply their relativistic energy, divided by c2, or m(relativistic) = E/c2.[25][26] The energy for photons is E = hfwhere h is Planck's constant and f is the photon frequency. This frequency and thus the relativistic energy are frame-dependent.

If an observer runs away from a photon in the direction it travels from a source, having it catch up with the observer, then when the photon catches up it will be seen as having less energy than it had at the source. The faster the observer is traveling with regard to the source when the photon catches up, the less energy the photon will have. As an observer approaches the speed of light with regard to the source, the photon looks redder and redder, by relativistic Doppler effect (the Doppler shift is the relativistic formula), and the energy of a very long-wavelength photon approaches zero. This is why a photon is massless; this means that the rest mass of a photon is zero.

Massless particles contribute rest mass and invariant mass to systems [edit]

Two photons moving in different directions cannot both be made to have arbitrarily small total energy by changing frames, or by moving toward or away from them. The reason is that in a two-photon system, the energy of one photon is decreased by chasing after it, but the energy of the other will increase with the same shift in observer motion. Two photons not moving in the same direction will exhibit an inertial frame where the combined energy is smallest, but not zero. This is called the center of mass frame or the center of momentumframe; these terms are almost synonyms (the center of mass frame is the special case of a center of momentum frame where the center of mass is put at the origin). The most that chasing a pair of photons can accomplish to decrease their energy is to put the observer in frame where the photons have equal energy and are moving directly away from each other. In this frame, the observer is now moving in the same direction and speed as the center of mass of the two photons. The total momentum of the photons is now zero, since their momentums are equal and opposite. In this frame the two photons, as a system, have a mass equal to their total energy divided by c2. This mass is called the invariant massof the pair of photons together. It is the smallest mass and energy the system may be seen to have, by any observer. It is only the invariant mass of a two-photon system that can be used to make a single particle with the same rest mass.

Since sunlight has energy, it also has a mass associated with it as indicated by Einstein's famous equation E = mc^2 or m = E/(c^2). 



An elementary textbook says the sun converts 4.2 x 10^9 kg of mass to energy every second. Using this number, we can estimate the amount of energy (mass) from the sun hitting the earth by calculating the fraction of the entire solid angle the earth intercepts as seen by the sun. Since the diameter of the earth is about 1.3 x 10^7 m and it is 1.5 x 10^11 m from the sun, it subtends an angle of about 8.7 x 10^-5 radians. If we square this angle and divide by 4 pi = 12.6, we get the solid angle fraction subtended by the earth, which I calculate to be about 6 x 10^-10 of the entire solid angle. Multiplying this by the 4.2 x 10^9 kg burned by the sun every second and we obtain 2.5 kg/s as the mass of the photons (light) from the sun striking the earth every second. 



There is another way to guesstimate this number using the rough estimate of 1 kW/m^2 as the energy of the sunlight striking the earth. Multiplying this by the area of a disk with the area of the cross section of the earth (pi x R^2 = 1.3 x 10^14 m^2) gives 1.3 x 10^17 J/s. Dividing this by the velocity of light squared (c^2 = 9 x 10^16) gives 1.4 kg/s. I consider this to be in excellent agreement with the figure of 2.5 kg/s obtained above. 

Please let me know if you find this less than clear or would like more information or explanation.

 

Best, Dick Plano, Professor of Physics emeritus, Rutgers University 

 

 

IN MY 70TH YEAR – SO FAR, HOW DO I THINK THE UNIVERSE WORKS?

 

1. It is logically valid to review what I know about science and speculate in the context of the human body – or, more specifically, by reference to my own person.

 

We humans are products of and are embedded in The Universe. As far as we know we are the most complex phenomena in the universe. I write this for me and other humans in a language evolved by humans for our communications. I think about the universe with a human brain, in human terms and apply human garnered knowledge. I comprise and organise about 100 trillion human cells that are similar to the cells of almost all life forms. I utilise 10 billion brain cells and 1,000 billion synapses to consider life, the universe and everything. My DNA “programme” has evolved over the 4.5 billion years The Earth has existed – and may have earlier influences from other solar systems or galaxies. Each cell has a DNA strand of 8 metres long, encoded by 4 chemicals; a gram of DNA can carry 455 billion gigabytes of data (Harvard Medical School) and adult humans have up to 60 grams of DNA. This could encode sufficient data to record my entire evolution (The Long Body) and personal life experiences, from the beginning of life to date.

 

There are 7 billion humans on Earth, each with unique experience and intelligence. Our pooled or networked sentience, intelligence and reason is truly immense. We continually communicate by shedding and acquiring DNA, cells, viruses and bacteria, via brain waves, through reproduction, families, tribes and nations, and through books and art and our work-products, electronically, verbally and via broadcasts. Willy-nilly, we all continually exchange bits of our bodies, genes, memes, ideas and knowledge.

 

On a universal size scale, we humans are approximately halfway between the smallest things (Planck length) and the largest (Observable Universe circumference). We are thus representative of universal phenomena and – as far as we know – we are the complex pinnacle of creation and evolution.

 

“KNOW THYSELF” - To consider the Big Questions in science while ignoring life and humans – is blinkered and perverse. If we could understand ourselves, intellectually or intuitively - or better still in both ways – we would be far closer to finding more answers. So, with the inescapable fact of our shared existence as human beings in mind – here are my ideas to date.

 

2. LIFEFORCE – Wherever we look there is organisation. The universe is not a random soup of jumbled particles. Dust clouds become stars and planets, stars make galaxies, galaxies cluster and black-holes grow at their centres (we calculate). Humans and their trillions of parasites, viruses and bacteria demonstrate that the universe creates organisms. There are billions of trillions of organised organisms. Organisation, self-organisation is characteristic of our universe. I conjecture that it is a fundamental force of nature, ranking with Gravity, Electro-Magnetism and the Strong and Weak Nuclear forces. The LIFEFORCE is the 5th fundamental force.  

 

3. THE BIG BANG – We calculate backwards from Hubble Expansion red-shift that the universe exploded 13.2 billion years ago from the opposite of a Black Hole, namely a White Hole. The location or direction of this central expansion point has not been found or calculated. There could have been multiple White Holes – which would solve several puzzles – but a single source will just about do. What is clear is that the essence, the basic stuff of the universe is “pure energy”. This energy is widely accepted as being Light or the electro-magnetic spectrum. It was and is, therefore, a field or set of fields, of energy exhibiting diverse wavelengths; from infra-red to ultra-violet, from X-Rays to Micro Waves to Gamma Rays to all radio waves. There were and are waves of every frequency, wavelength and energy level. Science now understands that such energy waves can and do carry information or data – allegedly at the Speed of Light. I refer to this ubiquitous energy field as The Aether Matrix.

 

4. LIGHT “SPEED” – To date, science demonstrates that Light in all its manifestations travels at 300,000 Kilometres per Second (KPS).  We recognise Light Waves and Light Particles or photons, at wavelengths or energies across the wide spectrum indicated above.  I imagine that

 

 

 

 

What this website discusses – an executive summary.

 

 

 

1)  That gravity is due to Hubble Expansion of the universe – a stretching or attenuation of the universal energy fields at 6.819E-19 % per second that creates diverse vacuums which attract matter and energy on every scale, everywhere.

 

2) That the Aether exists – being a structure made by the criss-crossing of fields and waves and particles, everywhere.  The Aether connects everything to everything.  Any change requires “permission” or accommodation from everything else that exists. (NB – I want to marry this to Inertia, which keeps the universe as it is).

 

3) Dark Matter is the combined pull from the momentary vacuums.

 

4) Dark Energy is the depletion, reduction of field power, mutual letting go which occurs in the electromagnetic field when matter is formed and precipitates out of the field at E=MC2.

 

5) That the momentary vacuums, of diverse strengths, attract field energies (light) which collide in the vacuums and sometimes make a fundamental particle, quark or basic fractal which are spinning tornado like entities binding the energy. These are too small to be disrupted by most of the other phenomena in the universe; and they bind together through mutual vacuum and Casimir type forces – maintained by Hubble Expansion. This contributes to Inertia.

 

6) That the universe, the Aether, is holographic and these holograms, being complete globular models of the whole etched by light, at every scale from the size of the whole universe down to the minimum Planck scale, contribute to Inertia.    

 

7) That all sub-atomic particles act in a similar way to electrons in a telephone wire, converting from electric current to magnetic wave and back again, infinitely. This implies that every particle coalesces onto a centre at a density of E=MC2, and expands back to field-energy, to at least fill the space occupied by that amount of energy and probably to the edges of the universe – and then reforms.  This is the pulse of the universe, organised by we know not what; acting on all matter including us humans.  We, and all phenomena, re-posit ourselves continuously.

 

8) That consideration ought to be given to a new force in physics alongside the nuclear, gravitational and electrical forces – the Life-Force - which organises complex systems and energies (Chaos Theory) up to and including intelligence and sentience, wherever we look in the universe. 

 

Expansion is Gravity - 2007 – the EIG model

 

 

(NB - This concept is NOT following the Einstein thought-experiment that if the surface of, for example, the Earth is expanding, that the upward or outward movement of the surface under our feet would be indistinguishable from gravity; however valid that thought may be. Nor is it String-Theory or Multiverse  or Curled-up-Hidden-Dimensions theory).

 

As the universe expands, as found by Hubble, the omni-present electro-magnetic spectrum or light, the observable boundary of the universe, and every imaginable sphere therein, attenuates at 2.304E-18%  6.819E-19 %  per second, and creates a total (supra) or partial (super) vacuum. Light moves in to the vacuum – at the speed of light – and in some zones or spheres the light waves collide or merge at angles and at wave frequencies that reinforce the “speed” and cause colliding waves to spin in a vortex, at perhaps 90 Billion Kilometres per Second (KPS). This immense “speed”, C2, creates a surface between the vortex and its surroundings, and a fractal of primary matter (perhaps a Quark) is created or spun from the energy; following Einstein’s formula Energy=Matter X Light-Speed Squared (E=MC2).  All zones or spheres of every size, attenuating with the “quantum-pulse” of expansion-and-pause, create the subtle and minuscule force of gravity – everywhere.

 

The Hubble universe constantly expands (all zones or spheres, some of which might be as small as the Planck length, do not necessarily contract after expansion) and inrushing energy feeds the spinning fractal. As in the vortex of a tornado, the spin draws in surrounding energy leaving a depleted zone around the vortex-sphere. This third vacuum, a surface-vacuum, attracts other fractals, while the constantly expanding (Hubble expansion) spinning surface repels them. The dynamic thus created between repulsive and attractive forces is the dynamic tension that underlies all matter. At this pre-particle, fractal level no thing exists that can interfere with the expanding and spinning vortex. Stability and permanence and inertia are created by Hubble expansion.  Dark matter, and its theoretic “extra” gravity, may not be matter – but the temporary attenuation of the every part of the field.

 

This event is the moment when energy from the energy field (light) becomes matter. As it requires a great deal of energy to make a small amount of matter, the immediate impact on the energy field is to deplete or partially reduce the energy of the field. This reduction of and locking-up of power in matter weakens the inter-attraction of the electro-magnetic field, which then further expands. The more matter that is created the more the field expands locally. Thus Dark Energy – the mysterious repulsive force - is in fact the releasing of the brake as the field, which is or which contains the universe, is depleted and its mutual attraction is weakened.

 

The rapidly spinning fractals thus created, throughout the universe, may initially be spinning on any axis of orientation, until their surface vacuums draw them together and from many collisions they harmonise their spins.  Solo fractals may spontaneously unwind and revert to energy.  Fractals in stable and mutually reinforcing relationships may persist for long periods. I would like to explore the neat thought that clumps of fractals (say Quarks) which are made of prime numbers of fractals, persist.

 

A single fractal made or held in, say, a single Planck sized sphere is in contingent relationship with all adjoining (empty) spheres which are expanding-pausing with the quantum pulse. The solo fractal may unwind – or be drawn in any direction at the speed of light into any adjoining sphere, as it expands. Thus, to fit the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, fractals of matter may appear and disappear, or may move in any direction at any time – but, one can imagine a preferred direction being created from sphere to sphere by the original orientation of the field – which the fractal is likely to follow.

 

To complicate the calculation “quantum-expansion-pause” arithmetic further, each (imaginary) Planck sphere is not only surrounded by interpenetrating spheres of the same size, but each sphere is also at the centre of  an infinite (imaginary) set of ever larger nested spheres, like Russian Dolls, expanding out to the extremity of the universe. The calculations of the vacuum powers of these ever expanding zones, of every size, are truly bewildering.

 

Friday, 1 February 2013

WHAT IS GRAVITY?

 

WHAT GRAVITY IS AND HOW IT WORKS – A NEW IDEA.

 

DYNAMIC EVOLVING Universe

 

Please read this essay with empty space, outer space, in mind. It ought to be a dark sphere of space, extremely cold – just a few degrees above absolute zero (-237 Kelvin) of any size, far from Earth, and as empty of matter as space can be; which is approximately five hydrogen molecules per cubic metre. Now, travel to the centre of that lonely, cold, lifeless, empty space – open your eyes and look around the sphere – and you will see the whole astonishing, magnificent, shining Universe. Your empty space is filled with Light, broadcast by all the galaxies, stars and phenomena that exist. You can see them because they broadcast, they send out, sphere’s of light waves; some in your visible spectrum, others as X-rays, infra-red, ultra-violet, radio, long-waves, short-waves and every type of waves imaginable. Your empty space is criss-crossed, cross-hatched with trillions of energetic light or electro-magnetic waves. The whole universe presents itself to you in that sphere. The only waves you cannot detect are those too large to fit into your sphere or into your viewing equipment. Casimir found that when a gap between two flat plates excludes large wavelengths, it causes a pressure deficit and the outer complete wavelengths press the plates together; the Casimir effect may stabilise the large and small spheres of the holographic Aether Matrix; and add to gravity within matter.   The majority of the images you detect are accurate, reliable and repeatable. The signals retain their unique identities, their special information, across billions of light-years and trillions of trillions of kilometres. You are occupying a holographic image of the universe made from waves of pure energy that illuminate you and any other objects in that “empty” sphere.

 

Now, quit that zone. Zip through hyperspace for a few million light years to another empty space; stop and look at the Universe.  It’s the same Universe you are seeing, but from a different angle. The holographic images of the same objects are different. Each viewing zone differs; each is unique. You have discovered that empty space is not empty. You are experiencing the universal Aether-Matrix, made of Light.  Now read on:

 

WHAT’S NEW? THE HOW AND WHY OF GRAVITY

 

As explored in my previous speculative essays, why and how all matter and energy attempts to “fall” to the centre of mass – be it The Sun, the Earth, the Galaxy, or yourself, is not understood, but is the fundamental proven, observed fact of gravity. This constant in-falling, compelled by the weakest force (gravity is a billion, billion, billion, billion times weaker than magnetism) is an unsolved scientific mystery; until today.

 

Although very weak, gravity is persistent, cannot be shielded and reaches to infinity. Magnetism is very strong, can be shielded, with lead for example, and has a short reach. We all experience these two forces, are created by them and we use them at every moment of every day. Nuclear binding forces are very, very powerful, can be shielded, and act at very, very short distances across atoms.

 

I think that perhaps: Light waves are forged into the primary fundamental particles “Fractals” that revolve as vortices in the light field, the Aether-Matrix. Fractals concentrate a large sphere of pure energy dictated by E=MC2 (energy = mass x light-speed x light-speed) Einstein’s famous equation to demonstrate that matter and energy are opposite sides of the same coin and that light cannot go faster than 300,000 km/s. We do not know how Light is concentrated into particles but we have often converted particles back into Light – in atom and hydrogen bombs – with truly spectacularly bright results that show in reverse just how much Light was locked up in the uranium or other fissionable material. Matter is compressed Light (electro-magnetic waves). These tiny Fractals combine to make particles, atoms, stars and planets – that have gravity.

 

Fractals have a surface revolving at 90 billion k/s, have cleared a huge area of the energy field around them, which is re-filled by in-falling energy, and are expanding due to Hubble expansion at the minuscule rate of 6.819E-19 % per second  (0.000,000,000,000,000,000,681,9 %) The spinning surfaces repel each other, the in-falling energy attracts each other – which create the underlying dynamic Inertia of the material Universe – where things, phenomena, are robust and persist.

 

Two revolving Fractals meeting in the partial, Hubble-expanding void, caused by their creation from energy, revolve around each other. They have a common centre of revolution and their orientation or Inertia, aligns. A third Fractal joins and the focal point of revolution shifts; then a fourth and fifth join - and so on. To exist, the Fractals need to draw in energy, which is freely available in our almost infinite Universe. As Fractals congregate, they block each other’s access to the energy – but their Space continues to expand, creating voids which are filled by other in-falling Fractals. We have Gravity. Expansion IS Gravity.

 

For a body such as a Star, a Planet or a simple rock to continue to have gravity, where all particles seek to fall to the centre (of gravity), Hubble Expansion must be continuous, which it is; and for the cycle to persist the in-falling mass (material and energy) must have an outlet. The gravitating body must be a dissipative system – otherwise gravity stops; it seizes up. My new idea is that all gravitating bodies do expel mass. We detect this reverse flow as energy waves and dust – from the Sun, from all stellar bodies and from ourselves; we broadcast legible unique identifiable radio waves and emit heat, as long as we are alive.

 

My guess is that the in-falling energy is balanced by the out-flowing energy – and that the differential in the rate of in-flow and out-flow and the time differences between integration and disintegration of mass enables the existence, for a time, of the body or phenomena (phenomena or “things” include pebbles, trees and thoughts – thoughts are tangible packets of energy). This reverse flow manifests as energetic events, which broadcast their presence as waves in expanding spheres; Light waves, that fill the Aether-Matrix with holograms of the entire Universe, even in the so-called “empty” space of outer-space.

 

Thus the cycle of gravitation is continuous. The Aether-Matrix of Light, which is the fundamental stuff of the Universe, evolves continuously as the reverse flow of energy from integrated phenomena in-forms and re-forms the Aether-Matrix. Like that most unlikely minuscule recording material, DNA, the blueprint for weak and feeble creatures such as we humans, which can retain legible data for millions of years, science knows that the broadcast radio signals from all things – from atoms to worms to black-holes (Hawking radiation) – are indestructible and fill the entire universe. This dynamic energetic feedback creates new templates, which create new forms, which evolve constantly.

 

INDEX - LIFE, UNIVERSE, EVERYTHING - JAN13

LIFE THE UNIVERSE AND EVERYTHING 2011: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7dmvCsQly2c 

www.noelhodson.com/index_files/Life-Universe-Everything-8Mar2011.pdf

QED – for now. 

Tuesday, 29 January 2013

RECORD RECORDS - DNA PACKS IN DATA.

You'd be going in, if only you hadn't stolen the 
tarts when you were 7 years old. But... Sorry!
THE RECORDING ANGEL HAS GOT
YOUR NUMBER AND KNOWS
WHERE YOU LIVE /D

Ian Sample writes in The Guardian 24 Jan 13, about the remarkable feat in Cambridge UK, of compiling Shakespeare’s poems, Martin Luther King’s speech and Watson & Crick’s paper on DNA, in the code G,T,C,A the four bases that form all DNA strands, and reducing the texts to a tiny speck of DNA.  The article is short on dates, but finishes with “A similar feat was achieved by …George Church, Harvard Geneticist …last year”. So it seems George Church did it first.

 

I wrote a detailed account in August 2012   21 Aug 12.  DNA STORES YOUR LIFE

 

As DNA makes the code for all life forms and reproduces the code in precise copies over about 3.5 billion years before significant “errors” are made – and as functioning DNA in old bones and teeth has been found intact after several million years – scientists claim it is a very long lived, reliable digital recording material; either stored in an inert form or perhaps, in the future, stored as part of an active, reproducing live DNA chain in life-forms.

 

Perhaps a full analysis of your DNA with its 80% “unknown function”, previously dismissed as “junk DNA” would reveal the full text of War and Peace, Titbits, The Beano and all the publications in the British Library. Perhaps all these texts could be recorded and inserted into your DNA, making you an information genius. Should we re-think reincarnation theories of child prodigies?

 

Such reliable, permanent and accurate minuscule DNA recordings, in chemical life forms that have measurable mass, are surpassed by the almost massless radio (light) signals broadcast from all things. Astronomers focus scanners on stars and galaxies 13.75 billion light years distant, and can read their broadcast information; or they focus on a star a mere 4.2 light years away and its signals reveal not only what it is made of and where it is going but what the intervening interstellar dust is made of.  As far as science now knows, your vital mobile phone signals informing your Mum you are on the bus and nearly home, broadcast infinitely across the universe in legible form – for eternity. All these signals can be re-read; they occupy no measurable space; they criss-cross each other; they propagate in waves at 300,000 km per second; your favourite TV soap, with all its adverts, races out to the horizon of the observable universe and probably amuses very distant little green persons. Our brains also broadcast radio signals – all the time. We are on universal perpetual record, with every other thing and event in the universe.

 

This relieves Saint Peter of the onerous eternal task of writing our deeds and misdeeds in a great book – he just presses “replay” as we apply for our entry visas. “Thank God...” he says as he dispatches wailing souls down to The Burning Fires of Hell forever “...for the electronic revolution.”  


INDEX - LIFE, UNIVERSE, EVERYTHING - JAN13

 

LIFE, THE UNIVERSE, AND EVERYTHING – BLOG ARCHIVE

Monday, 28 January 2013

BRIAN COX AND TALES OF DOOM

Last night I looked forward to watching Manchester University’s popular physicist, Professor Brian Cox, explain the miraculous existence of Life in our universe. Having very much enjoyed his previous TV series, I optimistically assumed he had either read my blog or benefitted from synchronicity, and had decided to make a documentary that included the integrative Lifeforce as the fifth universal force – alongside the accepted four foundations of physics and chemistry: Gravity, Electro-Magnetism, Weak Nuclear and Strong Nuclear forces.

 

I was disappointed.  He did indeed, with his usual élan and clarity, present DNA and the roots of living cells from which all life on Earth springs – and boldly said that today’s physics and chemistry can explain it all. But he then laboured the point, with heat photographs of animals and humans, that Life absorbs well ordered “high level” energy (light) and dissipates it as “low level” less orderly energy (heat); which he regretfully, sadly, morosely concluded yet again proves The Second Law of Thermo-Dynamics or Entropy (increasing disorder), which in turn proves that the entire universe will inevitably, irrevocably and irreversibly experience (a sentient universe  that grows brains as big as Prof. Cox’s can logically have experiences) Heat Death – which actually means cold-death, as the universe drifts down to Absolute Zero temperature.

 

Everything is falling apart and going cold – and nothing can stop it - Really?

 

I think the Heat Death conclusion is flawed. Human beings are creatures that integrate trillions of molecules in efficient warm cooperative conglomerations that build brains, sentience and intelligence. Blades of grass are almost as amazing. Stars condense bitterly cold gas clouds and set them on fire. Solar systems hold orbiting planets that support Life and attract and capture passing asteroids. Galaxies attract and hold solar systems in orbit – and grow by collecting inter-galactic dust. Galaxies collide and merge – and make new solar systems and Black Holes – which shoot out streams of energy. Things explode spectacularly and all the materials are recycled. Most scientists now believe that Life exists in millions or billions of locations across the universe. The universe is alleged to have formed from a limitless expanding field of “pure energy” that somehow (via Higgs?) condensed energy into matter. There is ample scientific evidence of natural forces in our universe that combine and integrate energy and organise (give rise to sentient organisms) matter and energy into vital and identifiable phenomena with scientifically predictable life cycles, lifetimes and half-lives. All these events laugh in the face of today’s scientific conclusions of doom, extrapolated from The Second Law of Thermodynamics. Again, science applies double-speak: “thermodynamics” implies a dynamic universe that responds, evolves and changes with events.  But, what the Doom, Doom, Doom mongers believe is that our universe is static – Open, Closed, Saddle-Shaped or Megaphone shaped – they believe it is set on a fatal static course that will not change.

 

Today’s science largely relies on The Standard Model – built with logic, experiments, interpretations and brilliance over the past hundred years. Science advises us that the standard model is incomplete – hence the hunt for The Higgs and a hundred other sub-atomic bits and pieces – and advises that 80% to 90% of mass is “missing” both from Galaxies and from the nucleus of atoms. Science does not know what Gravity is – or its anti-force, Inertia. All these mysteries are being pursued by science. What is not being addressed by science is; where does the integrating, organising, sentience-creating power come from.

 

I am sorry to contradict your current view, Professor Cox, but in reality and observably Life and the Universe are evolving and are dynamic – not predestined. We and they are not doomed to evolve to Heat Death. Every action and event in the universe, even thought, feeds back as coherent radio waves, into and is accurately recorded by the universal energy, which thus re-formed and in-formed creates the matrices for the next time-second of eternity.  Science should now focus on complex integrated systems  - more than on disintegration.

 

LIFE THE UNIVERSE AND EVERYTHING 2011: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7dmvCsQly2c   OR AT

www.noelhodson.com/index_files/Life-Universe-Everything-8Mar2011.pdf

 

 

Monday, 21 January 2013

FUSION, GRAVITY, INERTIA, LIFEFORCE.

ISAAC NEWTON AND HIS APPLE.
GRAVITY CALCULATIONS USE "THE NEWTON"
AS A UNIT - WHICH IS THE WEIGHT OF A SMALL APPLE.

 

Listening last week to a brilliant young physicist, who is working to bring us unlimited clean energy from atomic nuclear fusion at Culham Laboratories, UK, struggling on an annual budget of just a few hundred million dollars; I learned that his team uses electricity to heat a fissionable, or fusion-able, element to 10 million degrees, which forms a plasma hotter than the centre of the Sun, which they capture in a magnetic “bottle”. The powerful magnetic fields of the bottle retain the very slippery few grams of hot plasma for a few minutes before it “leaks” away, while 50% of the energy used to make the plasma is now, triumphantly, recovered in useful form – to heat water – to drive turbines – to make electricity – to energise our society. One day in the future, fusion power will be contained, controlled and channelled; and all our energy problems will be solved.

 

How? I asked …does the Sun, a fusion star, make and maintain its scaldingly hot plasma? – The Sun, I was told, is rather good at holding in the energy. I assumed it does so by applying Gravity. Which brings me back to asking myself – What the devil is Gravity?

 

Newton’s maths, and our everyday engineering experience, proves that gravity works from the centre of any massive (small or large) body. Thus, when rocket scientists calculate the path of a rocket from moving Earth to moving Mars, influenced by the gravity of the Sun, their calculations are from the very centres of the planets, the exact centre of the Sun and the centre of the moving rocket. And the maths, Newton’s formulae, work precisely, and the rocket gets to Mars. 

 

The urge of sub-atomic particles, atoms, molecules, gases and lumps of metal and us to “fall” to the centre of any body (mass) they happen to meet, is a mystery. Why make for the centre? It is this determination for all things to go to the center of mass that creates the pressure, that creates the heat, that creates the plasma, that creates, expels and propels Light, that warms and enables life on Earth - and probably elsewhere.

If we empty the entire Universe for a moment’s thought, and revert it to pure massless energy, Light, which is currently deemed to have no mass at all, and thus no Gravity (but as some-thing rather than no-thing it must have a very slight mass) – and in this empty space we allow the creation of a single particle, using the Light collision method in my TOE -

LIFE THE UNIVERSE AND EVERYTHING 2011: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7dmvCsQly2c   OR AT

www.noelhodson.com/index_files/Life-Universe-Everything-8Mar2011.pdf

…then the mass of the spinning particle, collects pure energy from a large sphere around it (E=MC2), continues to spin (like a tornado – not a virtual mathematician's spin) and continues to exist in a dynamic, not static Universe, as the product of three forces: Attraction (as the sphere of pure energy “falls” onto and into the mass), Repulsion (as the spinning surface repel each other) and Expansion (as Hubble expansion operates continually – NB. Hubble Expansion is not theoretical; it is known from decades of scientific observation, backed up with impeccable maths). However, when particles meet in empty, free space to form atoms and planets etc. we can realistically imagine them congregating in a lattice – as equal partners – not in a compressed mass, such as the Sun. It is the unexpected (self) compression of mass jostling to reach the centre that heats the material that forms the plasma in the process of nuclear fusion. (If we dismiss theories of The Electric Universe).

 

So, what is so damn attractive about the centre? What is Gravity? Einstein's is a circular explanation to say that mass sits at the bottom of a space-time bowl into which other mass falls. Newton offers no explanation, he simply accepts Gravity. I now see Gravity as a continuation and product of the tornado spin that, I imagine without evidence, forms the primary particles from colliding light beams.

 

INERTIA AND CENTRES OF GRAVITY.

 

Imagine two such primary particles meeting. They are both dynamic entities, not static, and both are emptying large spheres of energy, which makes the mass and accords with Newton’s calculation, of attraction reducing with the square of the distance etc. They are the smallest things in the Universe, so only they can act on or interfere with each other. They thus are “permanent” masses. Hubble Expansion enlarges them continuously and so they continue to draw in energy to momentary, partial vacuums. When they touch, their surface vacuums pull them together but the surfaces rotating at 300,000x300,000 kps or C squared (tornado like), keep them apart. The two are now in a dynamic push-pull relationship; their twin-system is expanding. These two primary particles orbit each other with no external impedance – between them is a real and a mathematically calculable, centre of gravity.

 

We humans naturally understand and utilise centres of gravity. When we clothe ourselves in a leopard skin leotard and swing on liana vines through the trees with a loud whooping sound, we control and balance the ever changing centre of gravity between our bronzed muscular bodies and planet Earth. When we miscalculate just where the centre of gravity is or will be in the next second, we overbalance and probably plunge unwillingly to the new centre of gravity, face down on the planetary surface. Our two primary particles are in a similar relationship – and together they are whirling round in their own private world.

 

LAGRANGE POINTS - A contour plot of the effective potential due to gravity and the centrifugal force of a two-body system in a rotating frame of reference. The arrows indicate the gradients of the potential around the five Lagrange points — downhill toward them (red) or away from them (blue). Counterintuitively, the L4 and L5 points are the high points of the potential. At the points themselves these forces are balanced.

Now let us add a multitude of primary particles, all spinning, all dynamic, all growing second by second. As they interact, they make large congregations, each of which has a dynamically changing centre of gravity – their own centre. They are oriented by these centres to THE centre of gravity which forms and can be found between all the congregations. All the spinning entities of groups of primary particles are in dynamic relationship with all other particles, through the mechanism of winding pure energy or light into matter or mass. These centres of gravity relationships constitute the Inertia of the Universe. All matter or masses are in relationship to and are fixed in place, subject to their dynamic spins, by Inertia. Inertia provides the capacity of orientation. (LAGRANGE POINTS are the counter balances to centres of gravity. They are locations between planets and the Sun where gravity from all the masses is balanced and so has no gravitational pull in a particular direction. We are parking observation satellites in such non-gravity locations. Lagrange points move if other masses enter the region.
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lagrangian_point

A very large congregation, such as the Sun, in which the primary particles have been forged into Hydrogen, Helium and trace metals, comprises googolplexes of primary particles in such relationships, all spinning, all continually attracting energy to themselves and all expanding in size, courtesy of Hubble. They jointly and severally clear a large space around the mass (the Sun) which space, in turn, is being constantly refilled by in-falling pure energy from The Field. This never-cleared space surrounding masses is Einstein’s bowl, his bending of space time. The Sun has a centre of gravity, which shifts dynamically with every addition and subtraction of mass to and from the Sun. Every primary particle also has its own centre of gravity and all groups have centres of gravity. All entities are spinning and all are Hubble-expanding. As primary particles are crowded by others, they are limited in drawing in only pure massless energy and their surface vacuums and emptying spheres are refilled, not by pure energy, but by neighbouring particles. The particles are continuously falling into each others’ Hubble expanding spheres – irrespective of size or scale. This in-falling is centralised by the many centres of gravity throughout the mass – and ultimately by the single centre of gravity at or near the heart of the Sun – which is also expanding.

 

But, as we experience in our daily lives, this jostling and crowding of primary particles squeezes out particles, with mass, at very high speeds – and thus with very high energies; which we experience as heat and solar radiation – the solar wind. Thus, the Sun and all masses, large or small, dynamically grow, compress and expel energy and matter. Thus, large masses attract matter and energy (which are interchangeable) that falls onto or into the mass, and then the compression forces matter and energy to be expelled as dust and radiation. In this way, the Sun and all large masses have a pulse - like living organisms, they are dissipative entities - dynamic, never static.


All masses are held in place or orbits by Inertia, the combined centres of gravity of the entire Universe, until immensely energetic changes occur in matter or in the pure energy field that are powerful enough to shift Inertia and enable new forms.

 

This is not a circular argument – its basic given assumptions (axioms) are just two – First that the Universe exists as a field (infinite and perpetual if you like) of pure energy (from God or by accident as you like) and Second that pure energy or Light, is the building material of particles which compress the Light.

 

How these particles are made and behave is my unproven speculation, my concept, my imagination fuelled by decades of reading popular science. This blog might trigger ideas that will illuminate the Standard Model and will assist in capturing applicable fusion power. A key point is that gravity requires a continuous and regular in-falling of matter, however diffuse, onto the centre of the gravitating phenomena. I guess the mechanism that causes the in-falling is Hubble expansion - which is constant throughout the Universe. Centres of gravity and Lagrange points may appear to vary gravitational forces.

 

Perhaps a mini-black-hole at the heart of every fusion-plasma holding “bottle” will replicate the effects of Hubble expansion in a laboratory and will create controllable in-falling gravity to maintain 10 million degrees of heat, with minimal electricity input.

 

BIG-BANGS, AND GENTLE, SENTIENT FORCES – THE FIFTH FUNDAMENTAL FORCE:

 

We humans are of a size that is approximately halfway between the smallest and the largest phenomena that we know of. Perhaps our size dictates the upper and lower scales we can explore. Our Universe has massive, walloping, crashing, searing energies of terrifying inter-galactic power – but it also grows tadpoles, daises, blades of grass and babies. These latter water based life-forms are both subtle and vulnerable, and they are sentient – they can feel their environment – and they need gentle environments safe from all the shouting, burning and banging. All phenomena emerge and are organised, somehow, from the universal field of pure energy (Light). It is logical to search for the subtle energies that enable short lived bags of sea water to acquire brains, occasionally act intelligently, reproduce and to wonder at the Universe. This organising, sentient energy, is, I believe, the Life-Force; a fundamental force ranked alongside Gravity, Electro-Magnetic, Strong and Weak Nuclear forces. The organising, sentient Lifeforce is the fifth fundamental force of our Universe. 

 

My calculation of Hubble Expansion is that the Universe (Space-Time-Continuum) expands at 6.819E-19 percent per second. My maths is not great, so check it out – the circumference of the observable universe, disappearing at light speed. I have not read any reasonable arguments that say that some parts of Space are shielded from this expansion.

 

This minuscule, gentle rate is almost undetectable on a human or even on a Solar System scale, but is observed by astronomers between galaxies. IF, Hubble Expansion does drive gravity, then several of the mysterious universal forces, such as Dark Matter and Dark Energy can be investigated in the light of this new factor.  Gravity would be seen as Hubble Expansion acting on every sphere from the smallest (Planck Minimum) to the largest (the entire Universe). Inertia would be the balance and dynamic tension, on every scale, between centres of gravity (foremost at the centres of large objects) of groups of orbiting and spinning masses – and Lagrange points. At the sub-atomic scale, human-scale investigations of particles will unavoidably and continually alter the centres of gravity under observation.

 

************ 

 

For a Theory of Everything, many fundamental matters remain to be understood and slotted into the jigsaw. The Standard Model of atoms and sub-atomic particles appears to be bogged down. Several top scientists say a new model or breakthrough is needed.

 

ENERGY CONVERTED INTO MATTER - The Higgs Boson and Higgs Field is a dubious discovery; first credited with “conferring mass” on other sub-atomic particles, its role and existence is now uncertain and debateable. No scientist has claimed that it was or is the mechanism that converts “pure energy” (Light) into “real” things (fundamental particles).

 

EQUIVALENCE – Einstein is credited with explaining Gravity. Part of what he proposed was to assume that Gravity and Inertia, the mysterious force that keeps everything in its place, are equivalent – and therefore perhaps equal and opposite sides of the same coin. This fundamental assumption is now being re-examined. Neither Gravity or Inertia are understood.

 

GRAVITY – Einstein pictured Gravity by comparing it to the force under the feet of a person being whisked up in an accelerating elevator or lift, far from any gravitational mass such as Earth, but experiencing the same downward pressure, as if standing on the Earth, due to the acceleration of the rising floor. The passenger would actually be experiencing the Inertia or fixed masses of the entire universe – relative to the floor’s acceleration compared to the relatively static universe. He also pictured Gravity as an infinitely large deep bowl at the bottom of which is the attractive object, such as Earth; any-thing with mass, including massless light, that enters the Earth’s bowl, no matter how distant, will eventually slide down it, to the Earth. If the falling thing is dense enough, far denser than our planet, it will continue going down until its centre (of gravity) gets to the Earth’s centre of gravity – in the centre of our planet. Einstein saw this falling object as appearing to accelerate as it falls through spheres within spheres of what I will call The Aether-Matrix surrounding the planet, each sphere equidistant from all others but those nearest the planet being shrunk (by gravity) so that the object takes less time to pass. You either need to read more about this – or need to get out more.   

 

 

CHASE THE LIGHT

 

MORE ON BIRTH, EXISTENCE, LIFE AND DEATH.

 

Response to an email discussing the previous Blog – I NEVER ASKED TO BE BORN. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

My ideas are based on science. It is scientifically true that:

 

(1) A 90 kilo man or woman is made of:

 

889,041,045,200,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000  photons

889 thousand, billion, billion, billion, billion, billion photons.

 

(2) If the 90 kilo man collected the photons from “empty” space, he would have to gather them from a sphere or ball with a diameter of 25 million kilometres. BUT, he collects the photons on the Earth, which is already very compact, so in the process of growing from a seed, he gathers them from a sphere or ball in the Earth’s atmosphere of only 12 metres diameter. A human egg or ovum is about the size of a full-stop or period on this page.

 

(3) Every particle of matter, and every sub-atomic particle, does broadcast its presence and activity as radio waves. Radio waves (Light waves) do go out in spheres for billions of years and maybe for eternity, scientifically, to the edge of the Universe. It is from these “broadcasts” that CERN etc can detect the particles (particle physics) and the Hubble Telescope can detect (see) very distant galaxies (astrophysics).

 

(4) The human brain and all organised forms (organisms) do also broadcast identifiable, legible radio (light) signals, all the time, from their thoughts. E.g. “I am hungry, I must eat” – “I am angry, I will kill” etc. We do operate on a 10 to 75 watt electrical circuit, depending how physically active we are. We create the electricity from our food. These radio broadcasts are probably received by all sentient life (Jung’s collective unconscious). An average person funnels or channels and processes 25 tonnes of nourishment – plus several tonnes of air – in their lifetime. We are indeed “dissipative” creatures.

 

(5) IF, the 90 kilo man exploded in a nuclear blast (nuclear = centre of the atoms), it would be similar to several Hiroshima atom bombs exploding; as the photons of light let go and revealed their compacted energy.

 

Not yet fully scientifically accepted but demonstrably true:

 

(6) “Empty Space” is not empty. Most scientists now accept it is not empty. My analysis is that because we can “see” the whole universe, from anywhere in the universe, that the light waves we see make light images of the whole universe (holograms) on every scale, everywhere. This is logically true and will be accepted one day. These light waves include ALL our broadcasts from every second – that do scientifically last “for-ever”. This universal sub-structure made from organised light from all phenomena is what I call The Aether-Matrix. Einstein did not say the Aether doesn't exist - he said he didn't need it for his calculations.

 

(7) The LIFEFORCE is real, as a fundamental, natural, organising force. Science currently turns itself inside-out and through painful quasi-logic contortions to try (and so far to fail) to explain how the scientifically inexplicable “four fundamental natural forces” Gravity, Electro-Magnetism, Weak Nuclear and Strong Nuclear forces become accidentally organised to make Galaxies, Stars, Planets, etc AND very delicate, subtle Sentient and Intelligent life-forms. While science reluctantly accepts from undeniable experimental observations and measurements that the Four-Fundamental Forces (and the Fifty Universal Constants) exist; science is stubbornly blind to blades of grass, trees and walking, talking humans as scientific fundamental factual demonstrations of the natural combination and organisation of energies. I predict that someday the Lifeforce will be ranked with the Four Fundamental Forces, as The Fifth Fundamental Force.

 

(8) If and When the Lifeforce is accepted as The Fifth Force – it will be seen as the balance of and counter to the gloomy laws of Thermodynamics including Entropy that imagines all energy is expanding (cooling) and will eventually (in a few trillion years) turn the entire universe into a cold, dark, inert, featureless soup. We humans, all 7 billion of us - and our spectacular universe - are living testaments to an organising principle of nature that continues to combine energy in interesting and novel ways. The universe is dynamic; not simply and irrevocably flat, expanding or contracting.

 

(9) The human seed, within a seed, within a seed does make us (we who are alive in 2012) scientifically “disappear” when traced back down the ancestral line to about 1760 when the enfolded seed (you and me) was too small to exist. It logically was smaller than “The Planck Length” which is the smallest thing permitted by science.      

 

Completely and entirely unscientific:

 

(10) It is pure speculation that our personal broadcasts are imprinted on the Aether-Matrix and are somehow retained or recorded for all time, and that they then create the templates for new life. But it is a neat theory and accords nicely with many religious insights and philosophies.

 

(11) It is not scientifically investigated or proved that “we” choose to be born, live and die”. Free will and self-determination is at the very fuzzy edge of the study and science of consciousness. It is part of my “faith” from esoteric reading and works that I believe we unconsciously understand the universe – because we are made of the same stuff as the universe – and that we have free-will.

 

Do continue to chase the light – and we will find that elusive spirit.

************
I NEVER ASKED TO BE BORN

LIFE THE UNIVERSE AND EVERYTHING 2011:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7dmvCsQly2c

 

www.noelhodson.com/index_files/Life-Universe-Everything-8Mar2011.pdf

 

AFTER-LIFE HEAVEN – NEAR DEATH EXPERIENCES



CHASE THE LIGHT

 

 

 

 

11th July 2012 The Higgs Boson & Higgs Field – The Aether.



An actual decay of a suspected Higgs boson into
two gamma rays (thick green lines) in the
CMS detector recorded in 2012.
Image credit: CERN



 

HIGGS & CUSTARD. Physics tackles the very small, Quantum /Sub-Atomic Physics – and the very large, Cosmology. Among the many mysteries is the moment when energy was (or is) turned into matter. With E=MC2 Einstein proved that mass is compressed light. Since then particles are measured as electrical energy or light. (See earlier articles). The Higgs might logically link the micro and macro worlds. Popular journalism paints a picture of fat Higgs Bosons wading through thick custard that “sticks” to the particles giving them mass; while other particles such as photons and electrons zip through the custard without hindrance (or mass). Fermilab uses the analogy of fast fish swimming through water compared to a fat physicist wading through water; in a popular video. It seems to me that both universal custard fields and ocean fields are metaphors for The Aether. 

 

Science believes that matter was created from Pure-Energy or Light a micro-second after the beginning of the universe – in the alleged Big Bang. How did it do it?

 

THE STANDARD MODEL, dissecting the workings of the atom, dates from about 1920 and has been added to and applied in the real world so often by so many scientists that it is accepted as utterly reliable. However, it does not bridge the gap from sub-atomic to astronomic, nor explain gravity, nor why 80% of the energy of the nucleus (protons and neutrons made of Quarks) of atoms is “missing”, nor why cosmologists need to assume that, not yet detected, Dark Matter and Dark Energy make up the 90% “missing” mass of galaxies like the Milky Way. Defining The Higgs might answer “How was Matter Made? How was Straw spun into Gold? How did Pure Energy get its Mass?

 

THE CUSTARD IS THE HIGGS FIELD: Einstein dismissed the Aether as unnecessary. Earlier scientists had conjectured that a matrix that conducted light filled the universe. I have long thought that the Aether does indeed exist. My Aether-Matrix, made of the intersecting light from all phenomena from galaxies to brain-waves, detectable everywhere by eye (visible light) or instruments (radio waves) and reproducing “holographic” images of the universe at all scales, is scientifically undeniable, if little known. It does indeed conduct Light.

www.noelhodson.com/index_files/Life-Universe-Everything-8Mar2011.pdf

 

THE HIGGS BOSON is deemed to be the unit of energy in an approximately atom sized sphere of 70 pm - 70 trillionths of a meter). The boson weighs about 115MeV/C2 to 125MeV/C2. In English, these are 115 million electron volts to 125 million electron volts each divided by 90 thousand trillion - and in ordinary arithmetical units the Higgs Bosons weigh:

from  0.000000000000000000000205010000 grams
up to 0.000000000000000000000222830000 grams

Bosons are about 134 times as large as protons (which are at the heart /nucleus of atoms alongside neutrons).  All the “Higgs Bosons” in the entire universe link with each other to make “The Higgs Field”. By definition a field has no parts so each Higgs Boson (a boson is in the photon /electron family) permeates the whole universe. {For me, this logically implies that the Higgs Field, or Aether, or my Aether-Matrix has the capacity for instantaneous communication, across a sentient medium; logical because sentience and intelligence (our brains for example) emerge from this field.}

 

PUTTING ON WEIGHT: Atoms are often depicted as shells within shells as in this uranium 238 atom (92 Protons + 146 Neutrons).

 

 

 

 

Science cannot “see” these shells but experiment shows how they act and we can apply that knowledge in practical machines. This is The Standard Model in daily use. The different particles are never static but in constant flux, as if pulsating. Even at Absolute Zero temperature, when everything freezes, they still slightly pulsate.  

 

Pre-Higgs, where and how the particles acquire their weights /mass is not clear. If we imagine this atom swimming in the Higgs Field, the ubiquitous journalists’ “Custard”, the particles are getting their mass – their energy (mass and energy are interchangeable) from the Higgs Bosons that “carry” or “confer” or “transmit” the mass/energy to the particles (which are not particles but Wavicles). So, The Higgs field of Higgs Bosons might be thought of as an all permeating shell around each atomic particle.

 

In my EIG Theory, the different masses expected of diverse Higgs Bosons accords with the differing vacuums spheres created in the field by the unceasing expansion of the universe. It is in those spheres that I speculate matter is created from light.

 

23 FEB 2012 To Melvyn Bragg BBC 4 discussion - Conductors & semiconductors.

 

Electrons do not flow down wires. A current from a power station creates a carrier wave, guided by the wire, which jiggles /energises IN SITU electrons. No electrons flow from dynamos to your home socket. Ditto for telephone signals - a carrier wave, within and without the wire, jiggles IN SITU electrons. The planetary model has been a very brilliant & useful image; but electrons do not hop from atom to atom. Conductive materials have electrons/orbits that will take in more energy and pass it on - non-conductives do not; their orbits/waves are stable (full).  I think the mechanism will come to be more understood with Casimir principles, where some wavelengths are excluded and some included in narrow confines. What moves is the mysterious basic "stuff" of the universe - we detect its intersections as particles.  I think. – Noel Hodson

 

4 January 2012 – Structure of the universe - Aether-Matrix & Pauli.

 

 The Aether-Matrix (that I propose as a fundamental scientific fact of the universe) formed by the electromagnetic signals or waves of all phenomena of all sizes, creates zones or spheres on all scales; each sphere is unique in that it “sees” the entire universe from a different angle and on a different scale than all other spheres.  One of the forces that holds these spheres in place and contributes to the inertia of the universe is the Casimir effect.  (See slide summary http://www.noelhodson.com/index_files/Life-Universe-Everything-8Mar2011.pdf

or read the paragraphs below).

 

Given the existence of the Aether-Matrix; it has a large-scale structure that necessarily changes slowly, over eons of time as galaxies etc change position, while the sub-atomic detail, the information, within the structure changes instantaneously and constantly as the Aether-Matrix is informed and reformed by signals from all phenomena; such as the human brain (see the slides).  On a human scale, the Aether-Matrix is a permanent, rigid, inert scaffolding that supports phenomena such as our bodies.  So, how do we form and move through or in it?

 

As stationary objects, we occupy a number of Aether-Matrix unique spheres. Their unique identity confers uniqueness on us (and all phenomena). When we move, say at walking pace, we may not alter the location of any spheres as each is a holographic representation of the entire universe, but we re-posit or reposition ourselves by applying energy to occupying new spheres and forming ourselves anew in a new location. We colonise and appropriate the new spheres with intention (and perhaps sometimes with consciousness).  So, the universe, the Aether-Matrix remains still (though constantly changing its information at a sub-atomic level) and we dissolve and reform step by step, breath by breath, thought by thought.

 

Two humans or any defined phenomena cannot occupy the same spheres. This is in accord with the Pauli exclusion-principle at a sub-atomic scale and is self-evident at a macro-scale.  If, for example, a laboratory reared Oxbridge physicist attempted to occupy the precisely same spheres currently colonised by Genghis Khan, a merger would be resisted and the most probable outcome can be calculated by reference to their relative energies.  Similarly, if Genghis Khan insisted that his sword, scimitar or dagger should occupy some of the spheres colonised by the physicist, then the latter is likely to move rapidly to new spheres or, and this is important, the phenomenal pattern intended and maintained by the physicist will be substantially disrupted, perhaps to the point where the energetic intention is overwhelmed and the entire pattern disintegrates.  Similarly, should a swarm of cholera bugs invade the spheres occupied by Genghis Khan, they might well prove to be more integrated and energetic than him, and thus persuade him to re-locate in the Aether-Matrix.

 

What the above parable illustrates is that the entire Aether-Matrix supports and accommodates all and any phenomena of whatever scale.  The energy required for phenomena to change location in the macro Aether-Matrix is relative to size or mass and the rate of change or speed – and, of course, to what might already be occupying some or all of the desired spheres.

 

 

3 DEC 2011 – A short, horrified anthropological diversion.

 

The Guardian 3 DEC 2011, reports the terrible and shocking news that in the UK, every year more than 3,000 girls are killed, mutilated, attacked, imprisoned or beaten by their families in what are perversely misnamed “Honour Killings”. The attackers are usually adult males, who are usually supported by adult females; usually triggered by the victim forming an attachment to an unapproved boyfriend.  The use of “Honour” here is in stark contrast to the honour, courtliness and chivalry of powerful knights, the trained warriors of old.

Such astonishing bullying and killing of helpless victims seems so alien and deeply evil that the subject warrants some analysis.  (1) Sexual Highs – Cases such as Rosemary and Fred West who tortured and killed women – and other infamous cases of sexual sadism - attest to the rare addiction of attacking others for sexual “highs”. Such motives underlie the medieval Witch Trials and today’s punishments in 3rd world regions of stoning, flogging and imprisoning young women for “sins”. (2) Repressed Incest – Fathers, uncles and other adult males might resent the girls bestowing favours on their (non-tribal) suitors. Such resentment becomes perverted into a need to punish the sexually attractive girl for the “sinful” feelings in the aroused male relatives. Attacks and rapes are then justified.  (3) Sexual competition – Most communities have historically created wars to justify the old sending the young men to their deaths; leaving the young women for the tribal leaders. Some ancient communities did not need wars; the elders simply had the power to own exclusive harems. Such behaviour is common in animals – for example bull seals, stags, etc.  (5) Bullying and Oppression – all communities contain a proportion of cruel bullies, male and female; who emerge whenever politics and customs allow.  These “honour” families are examples of how the basest of behaviour can be normalised in secretive, closed primitive groups.  (6) Anthropological Roots – Troupes of primates, including our nearest relatives, chimpanzees, similarly attack their own children over mating habits. It seems that this evil also exists in nature, even among the unconscious and “innocent” primates.

Perhaps the only cure for the madness is evolution, accelerated by education. In the meantime, advanced civilisations must actively protect the vulnerable by applying existing laws.  

http://pin.primate.wisc.edu/factsheets/entry/chimpanzee/behav

Restrictive mating, where the dominant male restricts other males from mating with estrous females in the community, consortship mating, where an adult pair leave the community for several days to weeks, and extra-group mating, where females leave their communities and mate furtively with males from nearby communities (Goodall 1986; Gagneux et al. 1999). Chimpanzee social and mating groups do not always overlap, given the variety of reproductive situations. This may have evolved because females have limited choice in mates after committing to a community, and the dominance hierarchy of males often dictates which males an estrous female will mate with. By having multiple strategies, females can expand the pool of males from which they choose while not losing the important support of the males in their communities (Gagneux et al. 1999). Having multiple strategies also maximizes the chances of males' reproductive success; they are able to vary, throughout their lives, their mating strategies with depending on their position in the dominance hierarchy.

************

 

 

3 AUGUST 2011 – Music of the spheres – structure of the universe.

 

 Waves in water, air, rock, magma, electromagnetic fields, and I suspect in molecules, atoms and atomic particles share a common pattern in that they all strive to be expanding spheres. Planets, moons, stars and perhaps galaxies also tend to be spherical. Why many galaxies are plate and saucer-shaped needs might perhaps be accounted for by their environment. Most life forms are spherical albeit with wilful protrusions into their environment; cells, curled up DNA, seeds, embryos, etc. Light, sound, material vibrations, planets, solar systems and energy, all propagate as spheres. If uninterrupted, they would be perfect spheres – so perhaps the ancient Greeks were right.  But they, all phenomena, and we the people, are not alone and unimpeded. All phenomena in the universe have to accommodate all other phenomena. We, and everything, are in contingent relationships in an existing field; which we may as well call The Aether.  Every energetic event, whether massively obviously explosive or minutely covertly static, whether persisting for eons or milliseconds, is in fact a dynamic system in motion, propagating as a sphere. Much of what we observe in science is the intersection of these (would-be) expanding spheres with the in-situ universe or Aether. Thus, we look at any part of the sphere, expanding in waves from a central event, and find a particle, which, we then observe, propagates along a line dictated by the expansion. Reminding ourselves that everything we observe is of, on or in an expanding sphere, albeit often not able to expand, or remain spherical and therefore quivering in-situ, shifts our perception and thus the basic models of the universe. This structural law, the music of the spheres, could account for so many westerners becoming as near spherical as possible – with their limbs protruding just and only sufficiently to allow locomotion to the next full-fat meal.

 

26 JUNE 2011 – Photon Aether, solves spooky action at a distance.

 

 Anil Ananthaswamy writes in New Scientist 25 June 2011, page 13, of spooky action at a distance and quantum entanglement; citing recent experiments where “a single photon exists in three locations”. I am reminded that light, or a single photon, does not actually travel as might a bullet from a gun. Light propagates. It is stimulated from/by an energetic event and it illuminates the surrounding space as a sphere. Just as electrons in a telephone cable do not travel along the wire but excite electrons in-situ via a carrier wave, and just as a shout or call does not propel a stream of air from mouth to ear across a ravine, and just as electricity does not push electrons from a dynamo through wires to the socket in your home, but excites in-situ electrons; light moves outwards in spheres and propagates by contingent relationships with in-situ photons. The energy wave energises in-situ photons and moves on at 300,000 KPS. This spherical radiation of light is ubiquitous, obvious and self-evident. Most current thinking has difficulty with the concept of in-situ photons, everywhere, which implies the Aether. However, current thinking is probably wrong (See my holographic notes below). The implications of spheres of light include the light being detectable, after one second, from any compass point or observers’ locations, simultaneously, even if the locations are each 300,000 km from the centre of the energetic event – thus being 600,000 km apart. If the energetic event, the stimulus, is just one-photon-power and can be classified as a single photon, it nevertheless could be detected at all points on the sphere, which expands at 300,000 KPS. The photons pre-exist everywhere.

 

 

 

 

 

9 May 2011 – Heretical physics.

 

I have been reading science magazines and popular books for 52 years. There seem to be more questions unanswered than answered, which is a sign of a healthy collective scientific psyche. But some Big questions have lingered for so long that they threaten to outlive me – which is untenable. So I have set out the Big answers – while attempting to respect all the information I have been exposed to – by filling in the gaps that have nagged away at my sense of logic and perspective for many decades.  It is not science as you (or I) know it – but the ideas may jog or jolt some enquiries into new directions.  It is also posted on You Tube – search for “Eternal Life, The Universe and Everything”.  One of the largest scientific gaps or omissions is the lack of understanding of or even acknowledgment of the Life Force as a primary organising force that we see all around us and that should rank with the basic forces of physics.

 

Summaries of some of the gaps - from 58 years of reading:

 

http://www.noelhodson.com/index_files/Life-Universe-Everything-8Mar2011.pdf

 

http://www.noelhodson.com/index_files/Seed-within-a-seed-APR-2011.pdf

 

 

 

 

4 February 2011 – From physics to metaphysics and metaphors.

 

 

Many scientists purport to be focused and objective with no interest in “non-scientific” distractions, such as The Meaning of Life, God, Life-Force, Soul and Spirit. I suspect that some of these scientists are not being entirely objective about their inner motivations. I suspect that many are in fact deeply curious about the big questions that religions attempt to answer: Why we are born; Where do we come from; Why do we die; Where (the hell) are we going? 

 

Here is my current, plastic, debateable view on how we, and our souls, might exist in and relate to the universe.

 

I read in Electric Universe – How Electricity Switched on the Modern World, by David Bodanis ISBN 0-316-72972-8 Page 74:

 

“…Lift your finger and this slightly stronger field spreads outwards, like the light from the Statue of Liberty’s lamp.  …The streaming field that stretches from you begins to wobble.  …But Maxwell realised that there was also a magnetic part to Faraday’s invisible force fields. As the electric part started rippling, it would power up this second, invisible magnetic part. (Why? Because changing electric fields produce magnetic fields…) …just by jostling an electric charge will make an electric field begin to sway, and when those first ripples die down, they will make a fresh magnetic field appear. As that magnetic field dies down in turn, the change in intensity makes a fresh electric field appear.”

 

This basic information is fundamental, first year stuff to all physicists – and it is how a low powered, comprehensible telephone conversation travels thousands of miles along undersea cables – electricity > magnetic field > electricity > magnetic field and so on. These energies are perpetual, unending, infinite, immortal and as eternal as the universe itself. We, we humans, generate such fields from every movement we make and with every thought in our electrically powered brains. Perhaps a similar set of forces and fields generated by electrons in motion also operate and oscillate between all other subatomic particles and their fields.

 

Putting these facts together with my stubborn insistence on reviving a structured universal energy field, such as the Aether and with Inertia and in a Holographic (see my description of a holographic universe below) energetic universe, I propose that every action and thought we generate, from birth to death, and perhaps from pre-birth to after-death, is broadcast out as electric -> magnetic -> electric fields etc, as clearly and coherently as telephone signals, to blend into, subtly change and add to the sum total of information in the universe. The subtle changes do, in scientific fact, alter the energy patterns of the universe, which in turn affects all phenomena. As fields have no parts, such changes to the energy field might be instantaneously known or recognised by the whole field – and feed back to the whole universe, including to us, ourselves, the conscious, intelligent generators of these particular subtle field forces.

 

Thus, the universe evolves with every action and thought (which are actions) made by all existent phenomena in the universe. And, thus, we are born into a world pre-stressed, pre-formed, pre-pared and pre-packaged and pre-ordained by all that has occurred since the beginning of time. And thus our arrival has an impact on the world. And thus our subtle data, information and electrical signals, our essence, our soul – does live on, in a coherent form – forever.

And if such signals can be generated by humans – maybe the obverse is true – that we humans take our physical form, we are informed, from such persistent signals, such energies, modified by our immediate environment – such as parental DNA, geography, diet, events, weather etc. 

 

Heaven Forfend!  We might even receive information from an earlier life history – not necessarily in our own genetic family line.

 

QED

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

RYDBERG’S CONSTANT – IDIOT’S GUIDE


 

 

22 Jan 2011 – Spinning on their axis?

 

New Scientist 22 January 2011 page 16 briefly reports that the Planck spacecraft and an “instrument” in the Canary Isles have detected microwaves from interstellar dust clouds which are interpreted as coming from charged dust grains, small enough to be set spinning on their axis by collisions with photons, turning at “tens of billions of times per second”.  (arxiv.org/abs/1101.2031).

 

No researchers’ names or organisations are given by NS and there are no explanations as to how this startling conclusion is reached. Startling because, depending on how many tens of billions of turns the grains are making & what circumference they have, the surfaces of the spinning grains might be moving at more than light-speed, which is a mere 300,000 km per second or 1/3rd of one billion km per second. And startling because such whirling dervishes caused by photon collisions are similar to the basis of EIG (this website’s theory) where energy is spun into matter through photon collisions. Also startling because such speed raises the question of how the grains remain intact and do not fly apart. Do they rely on dark-matter for their integrity? Or do they rely, as EIG avers, on the vacuums caused by Hubble expansion?  We need to know more, so:-

 

(24th Jan 2011 – Addendum – Sadly, the arithmetic doesn’t indicate a spin anywhere near the speed of light, which EIG is looking for. If the Grains have, say, a 10-6 metres circumference (compare to an atom at 10-10 metres) then a Grain would have to spin a million-billion times per second to be equivalent to light speed.  The analysts’ reports below only speak of tens of billions of turns per second – 100,000 times less than light-speed. The remaining relevance to EIG is that it seems that photons can impact Grains and set them spinning rapidly. Can photons impact each other and create spinning vortexes?)  

 

Cornell Library - seems to be the primary source:

http://arxiv.org/abs/1101.2031

 

Planck Early Results: New Light on Anomalous Microwave Emission from Spinning Dust Grains

Authors: Planck Collaboration: P. A. R. Ade, N. Aghanim, M. Arnaud, M. Ashdown, J. Aumont, C. Baccigalupi, A. Balbi, A. J. Banday, R. B. Barreiro, J. G. Bartlett, E. Battaner, K. Benabed, A. Benoît, J.-P. Bernard, M. Bersanelli, R. Bhatia, J. J. Bock, A. Bonaldi, J. R. Bond, J. Borrill, F. R. Bouchet, F. Boulanger, M. Bucher, C. Burigana, P. Cabella, B. Cappellini, J.-F. Cardoso, S. Casassus, A. Catalano, L. Cayón, A. Challinor, A. Chamballu, R.-R. Chary, X. Chen, L.-Y Chiang, C. Chiang, P. R. Christensen, D. L. Clements, S. Colombi, F. Couchot, A. Coulais, B. P. Crill, F. Cuttaia, L. Danese, R. D. Davies, R. J. Davis, P. de Bernardis, G. de Gasperis, A. de Rosa, G. de Zotti, J. Delabrouille, J.-M. Delouis, C. Dickinson, S. Donzelli, O. Doré, U. Dörl, M. Douspis, X. Dupac, G. Efstathiou,

T. A. En\sslin, H. K. Eriksen, F. Finelli, O. Forni, M. Frailis, E. Franceschi, S. Galeotta, K. Ganga, R. T. Génova-Santos, M. Giard, G. Giardino, Y. Giraud-Héraud, J. González-Nuevo, K. M. Górski, S. Gratton, A. Gregorio, A. Gruppuso, F. K. Hansen, D. Harrison, G. Helou, S. Henrot-Versillé, D. Herranz, S. R. Hildebrandt, E. Hivon, M. Hobson, W. A. Holmes, W. Hovest, R. J. Hoyland, K. M. Huffenberger, T. R. Jaffe, A. H. Jaffe, W. C. Jones, M. Juvela, E. Keihänen, R. Keskitalo, T. S. Kisner, R. Kneissl, L. Knox, H. Kurki-Suonio, G. Lagache, A. Lähteenmäki, J.-M. Lamarre, A. Lasenby, R. J. Laureijs, C. R. Lawrence, S. Leach, R. Leonardi, P. B. Lilje, M. Linden-V\ornle, M. López-Caniego, P. M. Lubin, J. F. Macías-Pérez, C. J. MacTavish, B. Maffei, D. Maino, N. Mandolesi, R. Mann, M. Maris, D. J. Marshall, E. Martínez-González, S. Masi, S. Matarrese, F. Matthai, P. Mazzotta, P. McGehee, P. R. Meinhold, A. Melchiorri, L. Mendes, A. Mennella, S. Mitra, M.-A. Miville-Deschênes, A. Moneti, L. Montier, G. Morgante, D. Mortlock, D. Munshi, A. Murphy, P. Naselsky, P. Natoli, C. B. Netterfield, H. U. N\orgaard-Nielsen, F. Noviello, D. Novikov, I. Novikov, I. J. O'Dwyer, S. Osborne, F. Pajot, R. Paladini, B. Partridge, F. Pasian, G. Patanchon, T. J. Pearson, M. Peel, O. Perdereau, L. Perotto, F. Perrotta, F. Piacentini, M. Piat, S. Plaszczynski, P. Platania, E. Pointecouteau, G. Polenta, N. Ponthieu, T. Poutanen, G. Prézeau, P. Procopio, S. Prunet, J.-L. Puget, W. T. Reach, R. Rebolo, W. Reich, M. Reinecke, C. Renault, S. Ricciardi, T. Riller, I. Ristorcelli, G. Rocha, C. Rosset, M. Rowan-Robinson, J. A. Rubi\no-Martín, B. Rusholme, M. Sandri, D. Santos, G. Savini, D. Scott, M. D. Seiffert, P. Shellard, G. F. Smoot, J.-L. Starck, F. Stivoli, V. Stolyarov, R. Stompor, R. Sudiwala, J.-F. Sygnet, J. A. Tauber, L. Terenzi, L. Toffolatti, M. Tomasi, J.-P. Torre, M. Tristram, J. Tuovinen, G. Umana, L. Valenziano, J. Varis, L. Verstraete, P. Vielva, F. Villa, N. Vittorio, L. A. Wade, B. D. Wandelt, R. Watson, A. Wilkinson, N. Ysard, D. Yvon, A. Zacchei, A. Zonca

et al. (156 additional authors not shown)

 

 

(Submitted on 11 Jan 2011)

Abstract: Anomalous microwave emission (AME) has been observed by numerous experiments in the frequency range ~10-60 GHz. Using Planck maps and multi-frequency ancillary data, we have constructed spectra for two known AME regions: the Perseus and Rho Ophiuchus molecular clouds. The spectra are well fitted by a combination of free-free radiation, cosmic microwave background, thermal dust, and electric dipole radiation from small spinning dust grains. The spinning dust spectra are the most precisely measured to date, and show the high frequency side clearly for the first time. The spectra have a peak in the range 20-40 GHz and are detected at high significances of 17.1sigma and 10.4sigma, respectively. In Perseus, spinning dust in the dense molecular gas can account for most of the AME; the low density neutral gas appears to play a minor role. In Rho Ophiuchus, the ~30 GHz peak is dominated by dense molecular gas, but there is an indication of an extended tail at frequencies 50-100 GHz, which can be accounted for by irradiated low density atomic gas. The dust parameters are consistent with those derived from other measurements. We have also searched the Planck map at 28.5 GHz for candidate AME regions, by subtracting a simple model of the synchrotron, free-free, and thermal dust. We present spectra for two of the candidates: bright HII regions that show evidence for AME, and are well fitted by spinning dust models.

 

*****************  and the above report is explained as:

 

http://www.technologyreview.com/blog/arxiv/26261/

 

Technology Review - kfc 01/13/2011  -  from MIT – tells us:

Planck Space Observatory Begins To Reveal Its Secrets

The first data from one of the most important space observatories is set to change the way we understand at the Universe

It's a big week for astronomers, who have an exciting new dataset to play with courtesy of the Planck Space Observatory, which is currently surveying the skies while orbiting the L2 Lagrangian Point some 1.5 million kilometres from Earth.

Planck's most important goal is to measure the cosmic microwave background, the echo of the Big Bang, in unprecedented detail. In fact, it's unlikely that any future spacecraft will do better. That's because the quality of the final data depends on how well astronomers can subtract nearer objects from the background rather than on the inherent resolution of Planck's instruments themselves. Whatever picture emerges is likely to be as good as it gets.

But the Planck mission has other goals too. Astronomers want to use it to build up a map of galaxy clusters on huge scales, to spot instances of gravitational lensing of the CMB and to look at the Milky Way, the planets and the Sun.

Planck has been collecting data continuously since 13 August 2009 and has almost completed three surveys of the entire sky.

This week, the Planck Collaboration of over 200 scientists from around the world release a first set of data early. They're doing this so astronomers can train other instruments on any objects of interest.

In particular, they want to give the Herschel infrared space observatory a chance to peak at any goodies Planck uncovers. Herschel was launched with Planck and is also orbiting L2 cooled by liquid helium which is gradually boiling away. Consequently, Herschel has a limited lifespan of only 3 years, which it is already more than half-way through.

The Planck Collaboration has released its data in 23 papers placed on the arXiv this week. It's clear the data is beginning to throw new light on mysteries such as the strange emissions from dust in the Magellanic Clouds and the properties of the interstellar medium in our galaxy.

But it's also clear that we're going to hear a lot more about Planck in the coming years. I've placed links to all the new papers below, in case you want to get a head start.

 

18 Jan 2011 – Immortality & the Power of Inertia

 

We, and all phenomena, transmit our presence, identity and actions from birth to death. The transmission signals broadcast themselves across the universe "until the end of time" as do signals from quasars, pulsars, etc that reach us from the horizon of the early universe.

 

Thus we contribute to the inertia of space-time, to the patterns, energy and structure of the universe. And thus our entire lives, every trivial and important thought and act is integrated to build the universe as it manifests today and continues into the far future. The signals we transmit do not die or diminish, just as signals from the "edge" of the universe, from 13.5 billion years ago, are still detectable and coherent, so do our signals persist. From our first stirrings in the womb, to our last breath, all is transmitted out into the cosmos to form part of the patterns of electro-magnetic energy or light that is the basic stuff of the universe. Just as the faintest traces of messages from our spaceships, after decades of flight, remain coherent even though sent from the edge of the solar system with a final whisper of electric power, so do our, and all, phenomenal signals, retain their identity.

 

This is equally so for each and every atom, electron, photon and quark as they evolve from pure energy, into matter, into action, and ultimately decay back to pure energy. The holographic nature of the universe (see below) where the whole can be “seen” in spheres at every scale – just as we see, with our eyes and telescopes, the whole image concentrated on the minuscule retina of our eyes; implies that the whole electro-magnetic field and its detailed history is detectable, identifiable and analysable on many scales – scales dictated by the observing instruments. The patterns of the histories of the universe never dissipate and die – they are as immortal as the universe itself.    

 

26 October 2010 – White Holes & Sinks

 

A theoretical white hole is the opposite of a black hole (New Scientist 23 October 2010 – page 13) where everything comes out and nothing can get in.  The simple analogy given is water from a tap pouring down onto a flat sink. As the water hits the surface it spills outwards in a bow wave, “creating a ring-like ridge” before the ridge collapses and the outward movement continues.  The nearest to a white hole I can imagine is the singularity at the start and centre of The Big Bang – where infinite energy exploded and poured out into the no-thing that became space and time. I used a similar analogy when conceiving EIG to theorise on how the original Big Bang matter-less energy, even though meeting no resistance in the no-thing, might through attenuation arch back on itself to create ripples in the energy and ultimately to create closed, arched-back globes of matter – the first particles.  Was or is the Big-Bang a white-hole?

24 October 2010 – Alpha, Aether and Inertia.

 

Michael Brooks, whose book 13 Things That Don’t Make Sense, I enjoyed reading, writes in New Scientist 23 October 2010 (page 33) about the work of Australian professor, John Webb, which threatens the consensus view held since 1916 of the universal sub-atomic particle, fine-structure-constant Alpha, one (Wikipedia) definition being the 1/137 ratio between The Elementary Charge and the Planck Charge; another being the ratio, or coupling constant between electrons and photons – and there are 3 or 4 more relationships which are “determined by” Alpha.  As Alpha is calculated and measured empirically, I think “determined by” is a misnomer.  John Webb has found through observation of light passing through clouds of magnesium and iron, from Quasars, billions of light years away (and thus observed back in time) that Alpha varies very slightly, one part in a million, being smaller looking North from Earth and larger looking South – at light from Quasars. 

 

One Constant varying will vary all Constants. This in turn seems to threaten the unified theory and raises a question of faith for scientists.  …Do you believe in varying Constants? 

 

My view is, YES, Constants do vary. The speed of light varies in various mediums and light can now even be stopped and re-started.  Where would we find the perfect vacuum in which light travels unvaryingly at 300 kps? - which in a leap of illogic brings me back to the Aether and Inertia.  In the texts below are a few arguments for the Aether and a Holographic universe, which seem more realistic with each new report. And I think the definition of Inertia, the force that holds everything in its place, should be strengthened to include “…the existing relationships on every scale of all things and energies in the universe, which change only when sufficient force is applied…”  One of the fundamental forces left out is the Life-Force, the implicit capability for energy and matter to form complex, living and sentient entities; which may prove to be the most fundamental, yet flexible, of the basic physical forces.

 

Multiverses and String-theory may be concoctions and confections of mathematics which in their brilliant machinations detect but do not define or explain the implicit dimensions and environments apparent, for example, in a historical family chain – where a woman contains all the patterns and energies necessary to produce the next, say 200, generations (with a little input from males along the line).  The implicit universes in that woman’s present existence – and of her ancestors – provide enough new dimensions and universes to gratify the most persistent String-Theorist. It requires us to embrace the reality of the Life-Force as a fundamental force, as a causal force, as a primary organising force; not merely as a complex of phenomena resulting from the four traditional fundamental forces. …And the point is?

 

The Life Force is known to be evolvable, variable, adaptable, probably universal, yet constant. If the universe around us is so astonishingly varied – why might we think that (mathematical) Universal Constants cannot also vary?  For the iron rule of Inertia to adjust all the component, interrelated parts, Constants and energies of the universe to admit a new, or exploding, or evolving, or shrinking or expanding phenomenon, requires the whole universe to shift, to evolve and change.  It seems that the Constants can and do change, revisited by Inertia and communicated by the Aether.

 

EIG still holds.

 

10 Sept 2010 - How Many Photons make you? What is your sphere of influence?  Click the link…

http://www.noelhodson.com/index_files/Creatures-of-Light-SEPT-2010-V1.xls

 

12 April 2010 – Quarks – Rest Mass – Protons – Neutrons – EIG still works, OK ! 

 

As I have just completed 10 weeks learning about particle physics and The Big Bang, and before I take up the post offered to me, as CEO of CERN, I am in an authoritative position to further speculate on the moment that and the process whereby straw is spun into gold – or energy becomes matter …and how C2 is possible, in contradiction to the law that nothing can travel faster than light-speed.  One of the factors that leapt out my student’s notes was that the rest-mass of the 3 Quarks, 2 Up Quarks and 1 Down Quark, that reside inside a proton are a small part, less than 15%, of the rest-mass of the proton. This mirrors the equally baffling mystery of the missing mass, Dark Matter, in the star-studded universe.

 

Protons are very reliable bits of atoms which last for almost all time – as near to an infinite (half)-life as we humans can imagine.  If the Quarks are, or themselves consist of, my rapidly spinning fractals – which EIG claims as the fundamental building blocks of matter (see below) - then I can imagine that the 85% of missing mass of the proton is the energy created by their spinning at C squared – which is 90 billion kilometers per second – and the consequent attraction between the fractals as the spins continuously wind-in and lock-up energy (see the three vacuums below) – and as the Casimir Effect further binds them together.  The dynamic between (1) the intertial forces that would tear apart the spinning fractals and (2) the depleted energy field surrounding them, which by its nature must reach out infinitely; is the very essence of matter.  Even after 10 weeks of particle-physics, EIG could still be a viable idea; or am I a blindly stubborn student.

 

 

BROOKHAVEN - ECHO OF EIG’s VORTICES

22 February 2010 – Quark-Gluon plasma forms vortices. 

 

This New Scientist article and the useful visual video (complete with commercial sponsor) has several similarities with the basic physical theory expressed in EIG (as to how energy is converted to matter and how C2 is possible, in contradiction to the law that nothing can travel faster than light-speed).  It is worth duplicating in full.  I will consider the implications when time allows.

 

BROOKHAVEN VIDEO - Quark Gluon Vortices FEB 2010

 

http://www.newscientist.com/articlevideo/dn18526/66623156001-atom-smasher-shows-vacuum-of-space-in-a-twist.html   

 

Atom smasher shows vacuum of space in a twist

17:27 15 February 2010 by Rachel Courtland    

Magazine issue 2748.

Ephemeral vortices that form in the vacuum of space may have been spotted for the first time. They could help to explain how matter gets much of its mass.

Most of the mass of ordinary matter comes from nucleons – protons and neutrons. Each nucleon, in turn, is made of three quarks. But the quarks themselves account for only about 1 per cent of the mass of a nucleon. The remainder of the mass comes from the force that holds the quarks together. This force is mediated by particles called gluons.

A theory called quantum chromodynamics is used to calculate how quarks and gluons combine to give mass to nucleons, but exactly how this phenomenon works is not fully understood.

One possibility is that the fields created by gluons can twist, forming vortex-like structures in the all-pervasive vacuum of space, and when quarks loop through these vortices, they gain energy, making them heavier.

STAR find

Now the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in Upton, New York, has seen signs of such vortices in fireballs that mimic conditions when the universe was just a few microseconds old.

To find the vortices, a team used a detector called STAR to analyse the particles created when the collider smashes gold or copper ions head-on at high energies. This process creates a fireball that is about 4 trillion kelvin at its core, a temperature high enough to form what's known as a quark-gluon plasma.

So what has this got to do with vortices created by gluons in the vacuum of space? If two ions collide off-centre, the ensuing fireball starts rotating, creating a powerful magnetic field. If gluon-created vortices exist, this magnetic field should cause quarks in the plasma to separate in accordance with their electric charge, says Dmitri Kharzeev, a theorist at BNL who predicted the effect.

That is exactly what the STAR collaboration saw: more positively charged quarks moving in one direction and more negatively charged quarks moving in another, says Nu Xu, spokesman for STAR. The findings were presented on Monday at a meeting of the American Physical Society in Washington DC.

Direct manifestation

"It's a direct experimental manifestation of a property of quantum chromodynamics that has never been seen in the laboratory before," says Krishna Rajagopal of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. "It confirms our understanding that gluon fields can have twists."

The evidence of the vortices in the vacuum of space is best seen in a quark-gluon plasma, which requires high energy collisions. The effect can be confirmed by studying the extent of quark separation at lower energies, so later this year the RHIC team plans to begin smashing ions together at lower and lower energies (Physical Review Letters, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.251601).

But it's not yet clear whether gluon-created vortices – also called instantons – appear frequently enough to account for most of the mass of nucleons.

The key lies in measuring with greater precision the separation of charged quarks in the fireball seen at the RHIC. The more vortices created by gluons, the more the charged quarks should separate. This measurement could help pin down exactly how prevalent these instantons are in the present-day universe, says Kharzeev.

 

 

 

NOT NEARLY THERE – QUESTIONS TO EXPLORE?

25 January 2010 – Bouncing photons and constant in-falling. 

 

Last week at my first evening class on particle physics I asked what space is occupied by the “pure energy” which results when two particles collide and annihilate each other; and I asked what the pure energy is. 

 

Pure energy is photons or electromagnetic radiation or light.  Where the energy is in space-time was more problematical and did not elicit a simple answer. At first the lecturer said that the liberated energy did not exist in space and time, before saying it was more complicated than that – and moving on. 

 

We also learned about Rutherford bouncing Alpha Particles 4 (helium nuclei) off gold nuclei 196.

 

Recently (Oct-Dec 09) I read in New Scientist or Scientific American that some physicists now ascribe a mass to the mass-less photon. 

 

Thinking about these matters leads me to an extension of EIG:

 

1) The gravitational force is an ever present ubiquitous force of matter tugging on matter, which EIG has so far explained as due to Hubble Expansion.   

 

2) Very recent articles speculate that weightless photons do in fact have rest-mass of the photon divided by the speed of light C2 (some say it is 1.8 x 10-42 grams).  See photon-mass below at Three illuminated thoughts - 2 November 08.

  But photons are never at rest.  I want to explore the idea that E=MC2 actually means what it says – and that a particle or an entire atom is indeed made of light compressed onto centres (by the original EIG mechanics below).  The space/sphere which the light occupied before compression (or precipitation like a crystal forming) is calculable by a variant of E=MC2, requiring a certain number of photons or light waves to make up the mass of the particle.  Thus the particle of matter is at the centre of a system where photons in-fall and congregate and come to an uneasy resting place (NB quantum fluctuations). But to be a gravitational effect the in-falling must be continuous. This could be caused by Hubble Expansion continually expanding the space occupied by the particle AND by the photons compacting down over the lifetime of the particle due to the continual bombardment by incoming photons. Ultimately the compacting mass, like cosmic black holes, explodes, liberating the photons.

 

THE BIG BOUNCE – just as Rutherford demonstrated that helium nuclei can bounce off gold nuclei, then in-falling photons might bounce off nuclei and as they bounce, fluctuate from waves to particles like electrons to magnetic fields (the essential conversion of energy to matter), bouncing out to the margins of the (relatively empty, vacuum) space previously occupied by photons, now congregated at the centre of the particle. This bounce and in-falling process is the characteristic wave-length of the atom (or of the particle) and it creates the electron orbit/s diameter/s of the atom /particle.  An implication is that the bouncing process might apply to all the photons (each in turn, leaving an attractive mass at the centre) which expand in waves out to the margins of the space from whence they came – to collapse back again into a singularity (photon) within the mass.  The space affected by a single particle is limitless as an emptying sphere would draw in energy from neighbouring regions to infinity – but definition and boundaries would be defined by neighbouring matter.  However, the signal would theoretically reach to the edge of the universe.

 

THE BIG SPACE – DARK ENERGY – DARK MATTER – C squared, is 90 billion kilometres per second and expressed in metres is 90 trillion metres per second. Even in fractions of a second, e.g. the half-life of a particle, the radius from the centre of mass of the sphere of electromagnetic energy which in-fall to create the particle – is large.  As speculated below, this emptying, or partial depletion, of a space of its light energy, reduces the mass of that space – which counter intuitively could let-go-of and allow the faster expansion of space-time – the Dark-Energy of astrophysicists.  The in-falling process, initiated by Hubble Expansion, is the missing Dark Matter which some astrophysicists seek to hold galaxies together.     

 

3) NB – The photon as a wave/particle is almost certainly the basic transition phase between pure energy and matter.  It is true that all matter is made of light and the EIG concept could indeed be a mechanism for spinning the straw (energy fields) in to gold (particles of matter). 

 

Will Microsoft Office EXCEL cope with 10-42? I doubt it, but it’s worth a try.

Let’s see if we can calculate how many photons make the mass of a quark, a person etc – and the size of the energy sphere which needs to be compressed.  It will surely show that I have a commandingly large presence in the universe.

 

1 DEC 09 – The Electric Universe - A dilemma: 

 

25 Jan 2010 NB – New Scientist 23rd Jan 2010 reports confirmation of an electric-magnetic field on the outskirts of our solar-system – which is a basic claim of the Electric Universe.  Magnetic mirror A mysterious "ribbon" of particles at the edge of the solar system has been explained. The ribbon, spotted by NASA's Interstellar Boundary Explorer spacecraft last year, is the reflection of the solar wind in a giant magnetic field in the interstellar space next to the solar system (The Astrophysical Journal Letters, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/708/2/L126).

The Electric Universe, by the self-professed scientific heretics Wallace Thornhill and David Talbot, makes very large claims for electricity as the primary universal force, “…a thousand, trillion, trillion, trillion times more powerful than gravity” (page 8). 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000.  ( 1030 )

 

One of the major components that the established Big Bang gravitational theories lack (in my view), is the Aether – a universally connected field. I surmise that the Aether does exist as holographic spheres / zones on every scale, each one unique due to the differing angles of interception, from each of which the whole universe can be seen – courtesy of light / electromagnetic waves and particles – and the spheres have substance, due to the pressure of the waves and particles exert on each another as they cross or collide. (See more on Holographic Universe below). This holographic matrix may underpin Inertia. 

 

As I read The Electric Universe my Aether starts to look like their all pervasive plasma.  Traditional physics demands absolute vacuums of space, with one or two stray hydrogen atoms etc per cubic metre, but incapable of transmitting anything other than gravity – a force which nobody understands.  Thornhill & Talbot claim that electric currents fill the universe and link all celestial bodies.  I thought about the Earth, with its known magnetic-field, and thought about it hurtling round the Sun, through the heliosphere and other planetary forces and fields and realised that a moving magnetic field should create an electric current – and vice-versa. 

 

So I will read on and reconsider 40 years of received Big Bang wisdom.

 

I am probably a good subject to be on the horns of the Big Bang or Electric Universe dilemma – two theories which may of course not be mutually exclusive.  I have never seen an atom smasher, a cloud chamber, a cyclotron – and must trust the reports and interpretations published in popular science magazines and books.  On the other hand, I have never seen a plasma chamber, alive with coloured electricity, doing amazing things – and must trust the reports and interpretations I read about those events.   

 

My EIG paradigm, on which this webpage rests, may have to change. 

 

More - later. 

 

The Electric Universe by Wallace Thornhill & David Talbot - 3 Nov 09.

 

I am reading The Electric Universe (www.thunderbolts.info) which popped-up as I was searching for “Physics, Oxford” – an interesting interpolation of foreign matter.  This well illustrated book (TEU) is not to be confused with another excellent book, Electric Universe by David Bodanis, which tells the very human stories of the historic roots and discoveries of Earthly electricity.  Talbot, Thornhill and their colleagues, state that the premiere universal motive force is electricity, instead of gravity.  Electricity (electric currents) has to be differentiated from interplanetary and  interstellar magnetic fields and plasma, which are fully acknowledged by astrophysicists; the major theoretical distinction being that “the Standard Model physics establishment”  regards such plasma and fields as electrically neutral, without electric currents – while TEU claims electrical connections and interactions  between all comets, asteroids, moons, planets, stars and galaxies.  In our solar system the Sun is the positive anode, contained in a Langmuir Sheath, the planets are negatively charged and the major circuit is completed by a plasma field-cathode at the magnetopause and heliosphere where the Sun’s influence ends and interstellar deep-space begins. TEU reminds readers that sub-atomic electrical-forces are a thousand, trillion, trillion, trillion, trillion times more powerful than gravity.  (1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 : 1)  which I have no reason to doubt.

 

I am reading these theories and looking at the accompanying videos with great interest not least because my thinking (see Heavyweight empty space 28 Sept 09 etc - below) has led me to a ‘dynamic interpenetrating electromagnetic holographic universal matrix at every scale (DIEHUMES)’ – which could be the long lost pre-Einstein Aether – a universal field which in my view ought to exist to account for Inertia.

 

TEU theory might solve or dispose of several mysteries including Hubble Expansion & the Size of the Universe, Dark Matter, Dark Energy, Anachronistic Stars and Galaxies, Life Cycles of Stars, Scalding Hot Solar Corona on our Cool Sun, Dirty-Snowball Asteroids, Lost Spacecraft, String-Mathematics, Math-a-mystic Multiverses, Aurora Borealis and Self-Cleaning Solar Panels on Mars Landers.

 

However, good old gravitational calculations and quantum & celestial mechanics have accurately put men on the moon and satellites in orbit round planets – without being electrocuted, yet, - so they must be a bit right.

 

I am drawn to read more of TEU by my natural inclinations towards the familiar – we all know what a lightning bolt looks like but we do not know what gravity is – and towards conspiracy theories, where noble geniuses are silenced by sinister great powers – which every child has suffered sometime – and by TEU certainty in the face of wishy-washy incomplete hesitant speculations – we deserve to know it all – Now!.  And I like the central idea that the whole universe is interactive and self-regenerating – maybe not doomed to Heat Death after all.  And, TEU aside, I like the role of electricity in the Life-Force, where I imagine it perhaps builds the templates that tissue cells follow as they develop into organisms.  TEU does of course highlight other unsolvable mysteries, including how and why does magnetism create electric currents and how and why do electric currents create magnetic fields. 

 

Deeper reading – deeper thinking and perhaps deep editing of EIG - to come.

 

 

 

*****************

NB – for next time.  Light does not travel – it propagates; the implication being that like electricity it agitates something that is already there waiting to be agitated.  Could this be so for all particles???  Back to the Aether and Inertia.

 

Heavyweight empty space.  28 Sept 09.

 

The virtual spheres of empty space which accommodate the holographic universe (see below) do have weight or mass. Erect a globe shaped screen in any sphere and it will reflect or capture a picture of the surrounding universe. The picture is formed from electromagnetic radiation or light, which does create pressure (mass).  Think of the principles of “solar sails” capturing sunlight. The radiation propagates or in-falls from every direction; if the imaginary screen is removed, the radiation from one direction will criss-cross with and impact on the radiation from another – such collisions might create fundamental motes of matter (maybe quarks); Tenuous, yes, but non-existent, no. To recapitulate the characteristics of the spheres:

 

1) They are expanding with Hubble expansion. This attenuates the field and attracts (allows in-falling) like a vacuum.

 

2) The smaller the sphere, the more wavelengths are excluded and thus the less dense the internal energy field.  The lower density inside a small sphere is surrounded by higher density – which will form “bubbles” in the field.  This is similar to the Casimir effect – which has a more energetic role to play later as matter forms.

 

3) The contents of the spheres have some mass.

 

4) The spheres nest inside each another like Russian Dolls. And the spheres interpenetrate each other.   

 

We are back to the Aether - I am afraid – which enables Inertia.     

 

Malevolent and Benevolent Viruses. Human DNA exchanges. 2 September 09 + later notes. (A brief aside from Gravity).

 

 

17 Sept 09

 

To: Professor Chandra Wickramasinghe,
Cardiff Centre for Astrobiology,
Cardiff University.
Mobile: 07778 389243
Email:
Wickramasinghe@cardiff.ac.uk

 

Dear Professor Wickramasinghe,

 

Harmful Viruses - Helpful Viruses

 

I have been a fan of your published work for several decades; so I apologise for burdening your in-tray with the following speculation - I hope it interests you enough to consider it:

 

Most people accept that a person infected with a flu' virus, a cunning packet of DNA, may walk into a crowded room and within an hour, all will be exposed to the virus and many will become ill.  Science can test for the presence of such harmful viruses or mark their past visits. 

 

Given the virus/DNA soup around us; is it not just as logical that helpful viruses spread just as rapidly as harmful ones? Are we simply too masochistic, paranoid and depressive to allow that helpful viruses, or other packets of DNA, can affect us positively?  I think this is scientifically testable.

 

Below are my rambling notes on the topic. 

 

I am building a Dawkins proof bunker.

 

Best wishes

 

Noel Hodson

 

 

17 Sept 09 – Another note:  We know where to look for malevolent viruses, such as the search for the 1918 Spanish Flu’ virus by digging through frozen corpses in graves and bone-yards in Greenland.  And we are skilled at isolating theses nasty little DNA packages in laboratories; on which we then wage war.  Where would one look for benevolent viruses?  There may be clues in popular history – miracles, sacred places, saints and healers, shaman, priests, witchdoctors, charismatic heroes, and etc.  The first step would be to note a mass cure or betterment affecting a large group – and then look for stray, new, DNA packs, and analyse their impact.  If some viruses can kill – maybe some can also cure?   Viruses ....I go further.  Is it the task of post-menopausal wise aging men and women to generate benevolent viruses and memes - to inform (in-form) the rest of the human race?  There must be several mechanisms for passing on good genes and good ideas.

 

 

 

13 Sept 09 – And another note:  This speculation could be tested by looking for benevolent viruses.  Also – malevolent viruses such as flu’ do spread through populations at amazing speed – and so might benevolent viruses.  Can we rapidly cure large numbers of people by releasing a benevolent virus?

 

Another note: this time to think about DNA in the context of the Life Force, having watched a TV programme “The Cell”.  A “seriously clever” heavily bearded, Harvard scientist, intent on making the 2nd Genesis – a new lab created living cell different from THE CELL which spawned all life on Earth, was filmed mixing, with a simple swish of the merged solutions, DNA strands, which make glow-flies glow, with animal cells. When the cells multiplied, the mixture glowed green showing that the introduced strands had attached to the cell’s DNA and were multiplying with the cells.  

 

Another interview was with a Cambridge scientist analysing 6 billion year old meteorites, older than our planet, which she found contain viable, complex protein molecules “from outer space”.  I am reminded of Viruses from Space, by Sir Fred Hoyle and Prof Chandra Wickramasinghe, who proposed that common illnesses are sometimes such star struck strands, arriving in Earth’s upper atmosphere, eventually swept to the ground by rainfalls and snowfalls, where they immediately attach to the DNA in our cells – and multiply – and make us ill en-masse.  They speculated that life may have come here that way and that evolutionary jumps can occur as the new material joins our DNA.  This 1970’s theory looks all the more plausible today. IF snips and scraps of foreign DNA can attach to our own precious and unique DNA – which they can – then humans are even less immutable than supposed. It is possible that in human society, we are all shedding and receiving one another’s snips, and being subtly changed as they join our own.  Hence, long term couples grow alike and grow to look their pets – or vice versa.  It supports the lunacy of cults and Howard Hughes, who isolate themselves from pernicious influences.  And “judge a man by the company he keeps”.  But it does not, as yet, throw more light on the organising life-force, which battles throughout the universe, moment by moment with the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics.

 

DNA – 4 September 2009.   We accept the fact that complex, e.g. flu, viruses are manufactured in our cells, escape when we sneeze and cough, and insert themselves into the cells of other people.  Let’s class them as malevolent strands of DNA.  It is testable by experiment and equally probable that “benevolent” strands are passed from person to person. When listening to the Dalai Lama at the crowded Sheldonian in Oxford for 3 hours - if he had flu’ I and others would likely get a dose of it; does he similarly pass on benevolent strands?  Is this a mechanism for the transmission of “charisma” good and bad and for mass adulation – and unconscious influences on others?

 

DNA – 5 September 2009.  ….and we accept that mumps, measles, scarlet fever etc, in fact all communicable diseases, are passed from person to person or beast to beast as prions, viruses, bacteria etc – which have been reproduced with their DNA in others’ cells. We do not know what “junk DNA” which is 80% of the genome, does or why it exists (just as we don’t know what 80% of the universe is made of). My speculation is that the entire history and evolution of the life form is recorded in the Junk DNA, and may be reactivated by extreme pressures.  Does the transmission of non-malevolent DNA enable the carrying of Dawkin’s Memes from person to person? Is our DNA changing from moment to moment? And do we pass it around the human race – thus all share in the new DNA patterns?  If so, it makes more sense of our longevity, well after our allotted reproductive cycles decline.      

 

Are there two causes of gravity?  First Hubble Expansion, Second Casimir Exclusions? – 13 September 09.

 

On reading Black Stars, Not Holes, by Carlos Barcello, Stefano Liberti, Sebastiona Sonego and Matt Visser, SCIAM, October 2009; and revisiting my own thoughts below, here’s another crack at a synthesis.

Holographic: I envisage the universe as a set of boxes or interpenetrating spheres, each in-formed by criss-crossing electro-magnetic radiation from the entire universe, apart from wavelengths too small to impact a smaller sphere – down to Planck’s minimum (n.b. Casimir Effect).  The original, matterless, universe consisted of energy, and it expanded and continues to expand as per Hubble. 

GRAVITY ONE - Attenuation: The expansion of what can be imagined as a featureless energy field creates a universal attenuation of the field of 6.819E-19% per second. This is the underlying tug of gravity ascribed to Dark Matter.

Matter:  As matter is formed (see below), massive “volumes” of the energy field are crystallised onto points, subatomic particles, thus depleting the energy field. The removal of these immense volumes creates a letting-go of the energy field, which drives expansion in the manner ascribed to Dark Energy.

GRAVITY TWO – Casimir:  I asked below what could create the walls or plates to bring the Casimir Effect into being.  The tamed, small waves between two large ships on a stormy sea are often given as a Casimir analogy.  The exclusion space between the ships is only closed from 2 of six sides/planes. The answer to forming the excluding plates may be simply – matter.  Matter could shield areas inside matter formation from wavelengths.  Below is a SCIAM report that Casimir does operate inside atoms. We thus have two ways in which wavelengths are excluded. Firstly, long wavelengths by-pass smaller, holographic spheres, which may cause the spheres to form as bubbles in the whole (stronger / heavier) energy field.  This would give the holographic universe a real rather than merely theoretical structure, which would give us the Aether. 

Secondly, as matter forms, the matter acts like the sides of the ships to exclude certain wavelengths and creates the Casimir effect.  While Casimir is the in-pressing of more (heavier) wavelengths on the outside of the plates as compared to the inside wavelengths, and is not strictly a vacuum, it nevertheless is a persistent and relentless in-pressing force which must logically, in a field, reach back infinitely – until lost in the complicated forces of surrounding spheres and matter.    

Thus, when calculating gravity, there would be two vectors to apply; the first, Hubble, immensely subtle and barely detectable (and probably not testable); the second, Casimir, stronger and more measurable.  These two forces, might explain the anomalies discovered in the speeds of space-vehicle flights. 

QED. (For now).   

  

Is the Casimir-Vacuum gravity? – 20 August 09.

 

A self-reminder to think more about The Casimir Effect and the holographic universe (see paragraphs below).  In the smallest Planck space of 10-33M, most wavelengths are excluded as they are too large to impinge. The criss-crossing effect (read below) will be limited to the smallest possible waves and thus the Planck space, say a sphere, will be relatively empty and its “sides” will be compressed together by the denser, larger spheres (accommodating more and longer waves) around it.  …And so on up the wavelength scale.  But what on Earth could the “sides” of the spheres be made of?  Would the relative vacuum inside a Casimir-Planck sphere tug on surrounding energy and matter – or are these simply excluded without any forceful effects?  

 

Crab Nebula explosion expands to the edges of the universe; and the Life Force, ranked with Gravity, Nuclear and Electrical Forces – 7 Jul 09.

 

More thoughts on energy fields crystallising matter at the rate of  E=MC2 ,  and thus about inertia with, perhaps, particles continually, rhythmically expanding back to energy and then contracting back to matter – perhaps expanding to the limits of the universe; lead to thinking about reversing the process. 

 

An exploding atom bomb converts matter to energy, which manifests in heat, light, radiation and sub-atomic particles. The explosion makes room for its expansion by pushing other stuff aside. In this sense it demands to be accommodated in its new form – expanding from matter to energy – and the universe has to adjust – despite the reluctance and resistance of inertia.  Does this liberated energy add mass to the electro-magnetic energy field and does such extra mass have the counter-intuitive effect of increasing mutual attractions within the energy field and thus, momentarily, slowing the expansion of the universe? How far from the centre of the event is it felt? Is there a limit to the effect of the explosion? 

 

In the case of a supernova such as the Crab Nebula, we can see that the explosion is occupying an ever increasing volume of space. The fact that we can see it, millions of light-years away, demonstrates that some of the liberated energy has travelled as far as our Solar System and - as the supernova occurred a long time ago – we could figure out the distance limits of its visibility. Does the effect eventually reach the boundary of the universe - if a boundary exists?

 

From thoughts about dispersal and contraction of energy and the inertia which provides stability, arise more thoughts about organisation, sentience and life – which is evident everywhere we look. Chaos Theory with its compelling Mandelbrot fractal pictures, had its popular day a couple of decades back and no heathen Richard Dawkins types rose up in anger – or even to now look back in anger – to scoff and scold.  Basically, if enough energy is poured into a system, Chaos Theory predicts points of bifurcation where the system spontaneously re-organises itself into what humans recognise as meaningful patterns and “strange attractors” around which matter and energy swirl in artistic mathematical forms.  In direct contrast to the allegedly immutable laws of thermodynamics, it seems that the stuff of the universe does not even itself out to become a bland soup or cold dead planets drifting in a dark universe – but it continually takes new forms and creates or produces new organised phenomena – including intelligent life such as humans and tadpoles and grass-seed.  Such self-organisation, of energy processing systems,   seems to occur at every level, from energy fields to sub-atomic particles, to matter. Is the basic stuff of the universe sentient?  Is it not now an appropriate time, in the evolution of the recently born field of “the scientific method” that the Life Force was elevated to a fundamental force worthy of being ranked with and studied alongside the physical forces? Life is all around us and as yet there is no evidence that, or how, physics creates life – perhaps the reverse is true.  

 

Melvyn Bragg & Co - vacuums or not? – 30 Apr 09

 

Melvyn Bragg on BBC Radio 4 at 9am this morning asked his panel of particle and astrophysicists if there is such a thing as a vacuum, either in the vastness of space or within atoms.  Several interesting metaphors and clarifications emerged in the conversation.

 

1) The Aether has been recently replaced by “the Higgs Field” which is deemed to wobble as electromagnetic waves pass through.  I knew we would get the Aether back eventually, but why ascribe it to Higgs instead of Hertz or Maxwell or Faraday or Thomson & Co?

 

2) The inverse square law of gravity works at a lesser rate inside atoms, which is due to the Casimir effect.  Casimir (1950’s) figured out that waves inside boundaries can only be as large as the boundaries allow, e.g. small waves between two large ships on a stormy sea.

 

3) It was said that the Red Shift of light travelling across large distances of space is due to the Hubble Expansion of space stretching the light. This is a new thought for me; I have always understood the red-shift to be because the source of light is moving away from the observer – and a blue-shift when the source is moving towards us.  I suppose it amounts to the same thing.  But does it have implications for the speed of light?

 

4) Dark Energy – the force pushing galaxies etc apart – is happening and is a mystery.  I have my ideas about this.

 

5) As electromagnetic wavelengths get shorter the energy in them increases.  I suppose this is another way of saying that if a long-wave signal is sent with say 10 tonnes/second of energy, then shortening the wavelength does not reduce the overall energy – thus each peak & trough has greater energy from the point of view of a target of a particular size (a human for example) which may not notice, be affected by, a long wave. 

 

The talk was around the idea of a cubic meter of black empty space. Is it a vacuum or is there something there?  And ditto about the relatively huge empty spaces inside an atom – the size of St Andrew’s golf course with the nucleus the size of a golf-hole; what connects the “orbiting” electrons and is the space empty?  The consensus was that the cubic meter of empty space is filled with electromagnetic waves (they are getting there), virtual particles which pop in and out of existence in defiance of the laws of conservation (borrow Friday and Payback Monday and no-one notices) and a very few resident atoms (hydrogen etc).  

 

The radio discussion inspires me to write a “what this site discusses” summary – for busy executives.

 

“Ooops” Change to the expansion of the universe constant – 11 March 09

 

Various recent 2009 articles in New Scientist & SCIAM have quietly introduced the data that while the Age of the Universe is indeed about 13.7 Billion years old, and that at the speed of light it might therefore be assumed that the edge of the Observable Universe is also 13.7 Billion Light Years distant – making that the radius of the observable universe – in fact,  due to factors beyond our control, the radius of the observable (not necessarily the greatest distance we can currently see to the edge of  the universe, but somewhat further) is 47.5 billion light years, which is therefore the radius.

 

This buggers-up the constant for the percentage per second that the universe expands, which I have calculated and have been using since 2002.   You will find it below, cited as 2.304E-18% per second.  The new number is 6.819E-19% per second, which is a far smaller percentage and rate of expansion.  I apply this rate of expansion to all, any and every sphere of whatever dimensions.  What this change might mean to all the ideas set out below – if anything – I will have to take time to consider.  The most immediate thought is that this even smaller rate of expansion (which through attenuation/momentary vacuum IS gravity) makes the process even more subtle and difficult to detect.   

 

“Spooky” action at a distance – 21 Feb. 09

 

 

Letter to the Editor

Scientific American

21 FEB 09

 

THE PULSE OF THE UNIVERSE.

 

The article by David Z Albert and Rivka Galchen, A Quantum Threat to Special Relativity, SCIAM March 2009, discussing locality, leads me to speculate on and to reflect that a telephone signal travelling via the undersea cables from, say, England to America, is a series of "travelling" electrons, creating magnetic fields, creating electrons, creating magnetic fields, and so on. The magnetic fields exist outside of the cable but are guided by it. This endless pulsing is highly accurate in re-creating the data carrying electrons from the re-condensing magnetic field, as demonstrated by the communications they carry. There must be a powerful force of inertia maintaining such accurate pulsating between matter and energy field states. If all particles of matter similarly fluctuate or pulse, which accords with matter condensing energy as in  E=MC2, and if magnetic fields pulse outwards to fill the universe, it would provide a mechanism for particles to be, by our time reckoning, in both states simultaneously; and would make accurate measurement of particles impossible.

 

Such a pulse, governed by inertia, would not necessarily always re-create the expanded energy field when it condenses back to matter, precisely as it was before. This potential evolution from moment to moment allows for the mathematicians’ findings of multi-verses, not existing simultaneously but from micro-second to micro-second, exploring all possible universes sequentially. If the expansion of particles into energy fields is a momentary return to pre-matter existence, the state before the Big-Bang when matter is deemed to have been created, then the expanded energy fields perhaps exist in a timeless dimension and as such their communications are not time limited, allowing action at a distance or non-locality. Fields are inherently non-local as they have no parts.

 

The inertia which so accurately recreates the particles from energy might come from the energy of the magnetic fields interpenetrating across the universe, forming a matrix which is robust in that every field and re-condensing particle has its place in the universe, as every other place is occupied; every particle and field is nudged into its proper place by every other particle & field. This matrix, which we might for example call the Aether, would also allow for a holographic universe, in which every sphere of all sizes, from the sphere of the whole universe (if it is bounded and not infinite) down to an eyeball sized and down to minimum Planck sized spheres, are criss-crossed by electromagnetic pulses from every physical object in the universe and from every immaterial force field. Place a recording screen or an eyeball anywhere in the universe and its screen will see the whole universe at whatever size the screen allows. Each holographic sphere image, made of real electro-magnetic forces, will differ and is unique due to the different angles from the positions of “fixed” matter and due to the exclusion of long wavelengths from smaller spheres.  Is this the source of inertia?  The philosophical implications and the responsibility for our personal actions in such an instantly evolving, interconnected, interdependent universe are truly terrible.

 

Noel Hodson (Mr)

16 Brookside , OXFORD, UK,  noel@noelhodson.com Tel +44(0)1865 760994 

 

 

All the world’s a hologram” – 17 Jan 09 & 19 Jan 09.

 

This headline, on an article by Marcus Chown, New Scientist, 17 Jan 09, promised to echo or at least straighten-up my thoughts on a holographic universe (below 28 March 08 & 18 Jan 08). But it seems that Craig Hogan, Director of the centre for particle astrophysics at Fermilab, of whom Chown writes, is using “holographic” differently to me. Hogan speculates that interference or “jitter” detected by the gravitational wave detector GEO600 at Hanover, may be due to buffeting by “the quantum convulsions of space-time”.  I find the explanation of holographic – making a three-dimensional thing, or even a five dimensional pretzel shaped thing, from two dimensional images on the event horizon of our universe – a horizon we are inside – and a three dimensional thing that might be as small as Planck Space divided by the Speed of Light, or far larger “graininess” at 10-16 metres, – is well beyond my imagination.

 

 

What I do imagine is that in or from any given sphere of space, every body in the visible universe can be “seen” – imagine the sphere as a head with eyes looking in all directions, feeding the images to one retina. And that if that sphere had some physical defining characteristics such as gas or dust or a glass marble, the whole universe would be seen within it.  In that sense the sphere would be a holographic image of the universe. I now go on to imagine that in the absence of any screen, marble, gas or dust, what else might reflect or fix the minuscule image of the great universe?  The unending stream of particles and waves, including tiny neutrinos, criss-crossing the universe could be the ephemeral spherical screens on all scales which capture images (or are informed by) of galaxies, supernovae, stars, planets, and even smaller phenomena. In fact, there is no logical reason to limit the sensitivity until the spheres are so small that wavelengths pass them by and will not fit into the space.  And this imagining of an infinite number of images, at all scales, made of light (just as the source bodies are made of light) leads me back to the pesky Aether – which in turn supports the wavelengths. And the whole complex is growing with Hubble expansion at my calculation of 2.304E-18% per second. (now 6.819E-19% per second)

Yes, I am so old fashioned, stubborn and traditional that I will not yet ditch the Aether.

 

The matrix of the holographic Aether will depend partly on the size of the nominal viewing-spheres compared to the wavelengths of electromagnetic forces and partly on the angles of intersection as the waves criss-cross. For example, if there exists a wavelength as large as the known universe then only a viewing-sphere as large as the whole universe can contain that wavelength. Take an imagined quantum step down to a wavelength that is half the size of the known universe, then two holographic viewing-spheres can be contained in the universe, which contain this half-length and all smaller wavelengths; the two viewing-spheres differ due to their different angles of intersection of all the wavelengths of signals from all the universal bodies (bodies of every size from galaxies to atomic particles).  Another halving of wavelengths excludes all longer wavelengths and allows four viewing-spheres containing all smaller wavelengths; the four will be different and unique due to the angles of intersection. This scaling will continue downwards until a minuscule viewing-sphere size is reached that excludes even the shortest wavelengths – is that the Planck Length? Within each of the larger viewing-spheres are smaller viewing-spheres whose perimeters are governed or defined by wavelengths.  Thus, the universe can be depicted as one all encompassing reality, of material objects, made from compressed lights as it happens, which contains zones, bubbles or viewing-spheres of invariably regular dimensions dictated by included and excluded criss-crossing wavelengths. The sizes of these viewing-spheres are quantum jumps in scale, though the quantum may vary with wavelengths. Each viewing-sphere has unique characteristics. A major and fundamental question is, do the criss-crossing signals of electromagnetic forces create a tangible stable matrix – however ephemeral, insubstantial, shadowy, ghostly and fluid it may be?  If so, it could be the Aether.  This entire complex is rescued from being eternally static by Hubble Expansion – and …according to EIG, the expansion of the stuff of the universe attenuates the matrix, everywhere, at all times and that attenuation or momentary vacuum is gravity. Another thought; the viewing-sphere ethereal matrix, if it has any substantiality, will in its turn, influence the “real” matter in the universe either by containment, wavelength reflection and deflection, or both. Given the regularity of this holographic matrix, it should be possible for real mathematicians to calculate the numbers of viewing-spheres.

 

Three illuminated thoughts - 2 November 08.

 

 

1) Is everything quantum?  Are ALL physical things at every level and size, built in quantum steps – or phase changes; emergence out of chaos etc.  It would make sense if this were so.  Even at the massive scale of lumbering animals – say human beings – evolution seems to proceed in leaps and bounds, not smooth gradients.  Are these leaps and bounds of a standard size if observed over particular time scales?

 

2) The New Scientist 1 November 08 article by Mark Buchanan, Shedding light, says that Mitchell Feigenbaum, Rockefeller University, New York, has published mathematics arriving at the same conclusions as Einstein but without invoking light.  The article also says this new maths makes it possible to allow that photons have mass – albeit a minute 10-49 grams per photon.  If they do have mass, and travel in waves – the (rigid framework) Aether once again rears its useful head – and it is a step nearer claiming that all matter is made from light. Spinning straw into gold or light into material looks more logical and adds credence to the vital step between energy and matter postulated in this EIG theory.  If photons do have some mass – does this explain dark matter?

 

NS 2002 - Now the researchers, along with Richard Woodard at the University of Florida, have come up with a way photons could, after all, have mass (Physical Review Letters, vol 89, p 101301). They say the secret lies in the vacuum energy that permeates all of space.

According to quantum theory, a vacuum is not really empty: instead it's full of pairs of particles created from nothing. Normally these particles collide and annihilate each other immediately after they form. But in the first fraction of a second after the big bang, the Universe is thought to have exploded outwards incredibly fast, a period called inflation. For pairs of particles that can feel the pull of inflation, the rapid expansion of space would have pulled them so far apart they wouldn't have been able to annihilate each other, and would have filled space.

The Higgs boson can't affect photons, but these charged particles can. It would have taken more energy than normal to create a photon amid this sea of particles. And the particles would have dragged on the photons. In effect, the photons had a mass of about a hundred-billionth of a gram each. After inflation stopped, the extra energy associated with this mass would have created magnetic fields that evolved into the fields that exist today.

Wikipedia - Massless particles

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photon   

 

…Instead, physicists generally accept the second-quantized theory of photons described below, quantum electrodynamics, in which photons are quantized excitations of electromagnetic modes.

 

***********************************

In relativity, all energy moving along with a body adds up to the total energy, which is exactly proportional to the relativistic mass. Even a single photon, graviton, or neutrino traveling in empty space has a relativistic mass, which is its energy divided by c². But the rest mass of a photon is slightly subtler to define in terms of physical measurements, because a photon is always moving at the speed of light—it is never at rest.

If you run away from a photon in the direction it travels, having it chase you, when the photon catches up to you the photon will be seen as having less energy. The faster you were traveling when it catches you, the less energy it will have. As you approach the speed of light, the photon looks redder and redder, by Doppler shift (the Doppler shift is the relativistic formula), and the energy of a very long-wavelength photon approaches zero. This is why a photon is massless; this means that the rest mass of a photon is zero.

Two photons moving in different directions can't both be made to have arbitrarily small total energy by changing frames, or by chasing them. The reason is that in a two-photon system, the energy of one photon is decreased by chasing it, but the energy of the other will increase. Two photons not moving in the same direction have an inertial frame where the combined energy is smallest, but not zero. This is called the center of mass frame or the center of momentum frame; these terms are almost synonyms (the center of mass frame is the special case of a center of momentum frame where the center of mass is put at the origin). The most that chasing a pair of photons can accomplish to decrease their energy is to put the observer in frame where the photons have equal energy and are moving directly away from each other. In this frame, the observer is now moving in the same direction and speed as the center of mass of the two photons. The total momentum of the photons is now zero, since their momentums are equal and opposite. In this frame the two photons, as a system, have a mass equal to their total energy divided by c2. This mass is called the invariant mass of the pair of photons together. It is the smallest mass and energy the system may be seen to have, by any observer. It is only the invariant mass of a two-photon system that can be used to make a single particle with the same rest mass.

If the photons formed by the collision of a particle and an antiparticle, the invariant mass is the same as the total energy of the particle and antiparticle (their rest energy plus the kinetic energy), in the center of mass frame, where they will automatically be moving in equal and opposite directions (since they have equal momentum in this frame). If the photons are formed by the disintegration of a single particle with a well-defined rest mass, like the neutral pion, the invariant mass of the photons is equal to rest mass of the pion. In this case, the center of mass frame for the pion is just the frame where the pion is at rest, and the center of mass doesn't change after it disintegrates into two photons. After the two photons are formed, their center of mass is still moving the same way the pion did, and their total energy in this frame adds up to the mass energy of the pion. Thus, by calculating the invariant mass of pairs of photons in a particle detector, pairs can be identified that were probably produced by pion disintegration.

 

 

3)  Referring to paragraph 2 immediately above, and to the thoughts below about the holographic universe being in every place, on every scale: Is light already there; everywhere? And so does it simply get activated when we measure its “speed” – activated like twanging or vibrating a taut string (not string theory) between the point of measurement and the source – and activated at the rate of 300,000 KPS?  If light criss-crosses all zones at all times – and has weight – then it could serve as the ubiquitous, now you need it, now you don’t, Aether. And thus be the carrier of Inertia.  This would not contradict the essential point of this website, that Hubble expansion causes gravity – and that light flowing into momentary-mini-vacuums collides with light to create fundamental particles. 

 

How many photons are there in a cubic centimetre of “empty”, “dark” space; what do they weigh and how do they retain their content of information about their source and their journey – which we can analyse – and how do they allow another electromagnetic beam to pass through the (already crowded as it contains an image of the entire universe) cubic centimetre, without mutual annihilation?  Maybe the beams thread their way past each other by taking the paths of least resistance – e.g. circumnavigating a minimum Planck sphere or a larger sphere. The beam that we suppose to be straight would thus disappear and then reappear from our view, breaking up a continuous stream of energy into quanta.  Maybe there are so many photons - infinite numbers - that billions of mutual annihilations do not detract from the information the infinite number of survivors carry.

 

The LHC and a contradiction - 12 September 08.

 

CERN switched on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) yesterday morning at around 9.30am UK time. Those who believed the LHC would create Black-Holes which would suck the Earth and possibly the solar system into their event-horizons, may have felt a slight tug towards Geneva; but most of mankind did not.

 

ONE OR BOTH OF THESE PROPOSITIONS IS/ARE WRONG:

By coincidence, or perhaps by Intelligent Design, a week earlier I travelled with a renowned physicist who analyses data from probes on distant planets. How, I asked, could such very feeble electro-magnetic signals with less power than an AA battery, cross the millions of miles of space between Mars and the Earth, suffer interference from the Sun, from stellar-novae, from many billions of galaxies, and 300 million vital mobile phone conversations and TV shows, penetrate the Earth’s magnetic field and atmosphere and maintain their coherence and legible data? I was given a wave-particle answer; from which I formulated my own excuse for the feeble yet coherent signals; inasmuch as the billions of diverse particles/waves signals are so very, very small that even criss-crossing in space they have plenty of room to avoid collision and annihilating each other. Space is very large and all electro-magnetic signals are very small. I did not press the point by citing minuscule Planck spaces and holographic universes; as explored below.

 

But here is the contradiction. Anil Ananthaswamy, writing in The New Scientist, tells us that the LHC will crash two contra-flow beams of proton bearing laser light and produce 600 million collisions per second. Suddenly space, albeit inside the CERN tunnel, seems very crowded, with barely any room for wave/particles to avoid each other. And, some of those collisions will smash the protons into each other and produce firework displays of primary particles from their debris. So it seems that space isn’t so large after all and that the coherence of data flows from Venus et al remains a puzzle – invoking incompatible thoughts of The Holographic Universe, of that damned Aether and of Inertia. And taking us no nearer to answering how (pure) energy turns itself into solid matter and maintains its diverse characteristics and shapes – in relationship to all the other matter and energy in the universe.  How does the universe spin straw into gold? How does a tadpole remain tadpole shaped? How does a table’s surface prevent teapots falling through it?

 

The undefined and indefinable Higgs Boson doesn’t provide a satisfactory theoretical answer. But at 79 years old, Professor Higgs may mercifully learn of all the universal truths from other worldly, forgiving dimensions, before the $9B LHC fails to find his boson. It seems to me that the colliding wave/particle beams may well be drawn to each other by the Expansion is Gravity mechanism (EIG) imagined here (below) and that the resulting fractals (quarks?) then attract each other and cluster to form the many different particles identified in the “particle zoo”.  The Higgs Boson will be found to be Hubble-Expansion vacuums – a temporary partial absence or attenuation of energy. 

 

 

The sentient universe and how humans alter it. 15 July 08

 

I have been re-reading The Goldilocks Enigma (2006) by Paul Davies, taking particular interest in his final chapters where he draws on the ideas of John Wheeler, who with other theorists posited ‘meaning circuits’ in the ‘participatory universe’.  How might such feedback from intelligent observers function?

 

Given the architecture or scaffolding of interwoven light, the Aether, the ubiquitous, highly robust, energetic holograms on every scale, which inhabit the entire universe, as sketched out below; and given the observed inertia of the universe, which enables material objects to retain their characteristics, despite innumerable hugely energetic events such as supernovas etc, which might be supposed to be powerful enough to disrupt the holograms and destroy all lesser electro-magnetic signals, but do not in fact obliterate even the most feeble information streams reaching our observatories; then how does the inertia of the universe become flexible enough to accommodate changes, including the emergence and destruction of matter?

 

There may be a feedback mechanism in the holographic universe which, for example, reports the emergence of a particle of matter (or a supernova), created from the energetic field, to the entire electro-magnetic field – and, as a field has no parts, the feedback is instantaneous, so that the necessary warping or bending of space-time around the particle is allowed by inertia; and the holographic scaffolding adjusts instantaneously, everywhere. If this feedback mechanism is allowed; it means that every particle or cluster of particles of matter and their behaviour and impact on the universe are felt, or known by the entire universe, simultaneously – across the energy field which has no parts. Thus the robust, holographic, stable light and matter fields adjust the holographic architecture for each and every material event.

 

Some such clusters of matter and energy are gathered together in such subtle patterns and interactions as to generate life, sentience and human intelligence - ourselves. In the holographic universe the activities of these complex life-nodes also feedback into the all encompassing energy field, just as the existence of a massive planet bends light and so alters the architecture of the entire universe (every light-woven holographic bubble changes, as it must to allow for inertia), so does the universe alter due to the information (can I be pedantic here and type “in-form-ation”) which flows from the sentient cells in the universe.

 

As we are referring to the characteristics of space-time adjusting to the presence of sentience – then such changes might well be timeless; and so affect the past, present and future. Do we, after all, make our own universe and our own heaven and hell? What an awesome self-responsibility.  

 

 

 

More rough notes: on Russian Dolls, Multiverse, String Theory, Genes, Memes and me – Maybe synthesis later: 13 April 08

 

Russian Dolls, implicate dimensions:  With thanks to mad String Theorists. I am alive, I exist. In DNA terms I may even be unique. I am as real as any test of reality requires.  I was just as scientifically real as an embryo in my mother’s womb. I was partially but still scientifically real as an unfertilised egg in my mother’s fallopian tubes/egg sac.  That half-me was just as scientifically detectable inside my mother as an unfertilised egg in my grandmother’s egg sac. The scale is already becoming so tiny as to defeat human instruments – but the reality is logical. And we are only two generations (and a couple of determined spermatozoa) back in the sequence – historically back to about 1897.  And so on into endless regress – the Russian Dolls getting ever smaller but the “long body” that results in me, in reality, is undeniable.  These many implicate dimensions seem to be analogous to the many (from ten up to infinite) curled-up dimensions of String-Theorists.

 

Many Worlds – Multiverse – Probability: However, in following the eggs, within eggs, within eggs, within eggs back to Eve, we are conveniently ignoring the equally real existence of Adam and his spermatozoa at each juncture. And now it gets really complicated for Adam was implicit in his mother’s egg sac etc. as were his numberless male descendants in their mother’s egg sacs. And many of these nameless mothers and fathers would have been the same parents of many sons and daughters. (We are all linked). Because males produce vast quantities of sperm, much of which is sinfully and biblically “spilled on the ground”, my direct line of descent cannot be deduced by reference to specific spermatozoa. So we enter the fields of probability.  If a mathematician were unconsciously grappling with this ancesteral complexity, he/she might start to spin out Other Universes in which to accommodate all the possibilities, all the in-potentia, unique persons or DNA that might have emerged in the present – in my place.  BUT, the reality is that I am here, the probability fields and equations have collapsed and my unique DNA rules – OK! So this ancesteral search, blending the maternal and paternal probabilities, is analogous at any moment of fertilisation to the many universes theorems of the Multiverse lobby. Maybe.

 

As I have two daughters, from ova fertilized 40 and 37 years ago respectively, they now carry these probabilities and Russian Dolls on to the next generations. As my DNA was passed on decades ago and yet I still exist and persist, I am reminded of the joke about the tourist asking the way in Ireland …after complicated up hill and down dale instructions the Irishman says, “…and 3 miles before you get to the pub, turn right”.  My DNA has already passed the turning three miles back – but what about Time Dimensions and Dawkin’s Memes? – for another time perhaps.

 

So – here below we have the fact of a holographic universe with representations in light at every possible scale and every possible focal point of the whole universe, observed from different angles. And above we have the fact of implicate multi-dimensions conjured by String Theory and finally the many Universe/probability theory beloved by Multiverse proponents.

 

The logic of the historic existence of me in my Russian Dolls form and half-form is inescapable – back unto the Nth generation. And I have absolutely no memory of those earlier forms of me and can barely imagine them beyond the moment of my recent birth. However, the scale of matter, atomic, particle etc, it seems would remain the same throughout. If we reverse the process and look forward into my personal future – is there an equally unimaginable dimension or dimensions ahead in time which the essence of me might emerge into?  This is more than mere intellectual speculation as I have passed the age of 65 and I am making my final turn for landing. Richard Dawkins – your comments on a postcard please.

 

Needs more thought and synthesis - and we must not omit the Hubble expansion. But at least I have got these notes down before they drifted away to some other reality.

 

Is this the EUREKA moment? 28 March 2008.

 

 

28 March 2008 -  NB – From a recent  New Scientist article I find I am a Bohmian.  The NS report explained the double slit experiment Bohmian style as the (visible) light being a carrier-wave and centre (particle or photon) – and it is the wave that creates the characteristic shadows and light patterns.

 

However, even accepting this idea, the essential mystery for me remains; how does energy convert to matter and how does matter take and retain its form in a tumultuous universe (inertia).

 

A 5 minute look at articles about Bohm’s holographic and wave theories give me confidence to now speculate:

 

Yes – the energy waves in the universe extend as effectively-infinite spheres, which criss-cross at every point in the universe (see paragraphs below). Thus large and minuscule holograms of the universe are created on every scale and every location throughout the space-time continuum. One paper on Bohm says he believed the material of the human brain was also such a holographic organisation – and that therefore we (some of us) can, in theory, access knowledge of the universe. 

 

These carrier waves pulse and fill the universe one moment then congregate at their centres as what we perceive as particles. This makes, say a human eyeball, eye-crossingly complicated with billions of particles expanding to the edge of the universe in wave form and coalescing back to points (black-hole-like) while retaining a coherent, relational and functioning form – but some such inertial mechanism must exist to enable the eye to have its continuous existence and stability.  And think of an infinite progression of future human babies implicit in a single human egg – it is very complicated.

 

I think the inertial matrix of these criss-cross energies, where every thing and non-thing are connected an infinite number of times and locations, creates the stability and inform-ation that confers form. We creations of this process can change the universal inertia by feedback or reprocessing the energy - but only rarely – but shifts in the energy patterns underlying our DNA are possible and we can and do adjust to our energy-wave environment.

 

The HOW – how does matter emerge from the energy field/s? still seems to me to give EIG a fighting chance of being one of the ways of explaining the transition from energy fields to particles.

 

I’ll tidy this up next visit.

 

 

6 Feb 08 – NB – Do all primary particles constantly fluctuate between point like and wave like states? Just as the electric signals, electrons, along a telephone wire, such as an undersea cable, create a magnetic field “at right angles to the wire” which then in turn generates a current, which generates a field and so on, ad-infinitum, so do ALL primary particles. What the electrons are doing is pulsing from a point (particle) of matter to a globe (halo) of field energy (non-matter) and back again to matter. In fact the definition of a primary particle must be that it has this property, this pulse or flux. Photons, Electrons, Neutrinos, Quarks etc and of course my primary fractals have this characteristic or capability. This solves the wave-particle double-slit conundrum; the electron “shells” surrounding the nucleus of an atom are fluctuating. Each outburst into a globe-halo energy field fills the (extremely large) space of the energy required to make that particle and, as it re-condenses, the space is momentarily depleted of energy and is a void. To expand into a halo-globe the energy must come into a contingent relationship with the existing all pervading universal field and affect the whole field. Are all primary particles in effect “tunnelling” at the speed of light through the wavelength-matrix of the “Aether” (see Void 18 Jan 08 below) and to do this do they dissolve and re-condense endlessly? IF electrons, photons, quarks etc are assemblies of my vortex created fractals, then the halo-globe could be a cloud of fractals (still matter) or could unwind back to pure energy. HOWEVER, the implications for inertia – the power that (accurately) restores the status-quo – are fantastic (is the universal field sensate?).  – Read more and re-visit and write-up.

 

 

Frank Close, The Void & that pesky Aether – 18 January 2008

 

Professor Frank Close, Oxford University, has written The Void (University Press), which is one of the clearest analyses of the stuff that makes the universe that I have read.  As I struggle to comprehend, absorb and encompass all the information in his book, subtitled “This is an exploration of nothing” I want to note my own ideas inspired by The Void, possibly key ideas, – and perhaps later to update my poetic description of The Theory of Everything for the first time in 4 years – linked below.

  

CLICK A descriptive overview. How EIG might operate

 

Is the Void - empty, matter-less space - empty? Frank Close says it is not and I agree.  I gather that Professor Close contends that empty space is a seething ocean of quivering zero-point-energies, short-lived quantum particles and energy fluctuations – which mathematically can be demonstrated to cancel each other, indicating that the entire universe emerged from nothing and nowhere.

 

I cannot disagree with the science, the reported findings and interpretations from cyclotrons, or the mathematics; all of which are entirely beyond me. But, it does seem that The Void as described is closely skirting previous speculations about the Aether – an Aether which seems to come and go with the fashions of physicists’ training and thought-experiments.

 

Space or The Void is not empty. Take an emptied, evacuated, particle-free cube of any size and at any place in the known universe, erect a screen or an aerial or a human eye ball and it will “see” or record the whole of creation. How does it see the universe? The cube is criss-crossed by light travelling from all the galaxies, stars, planets, comets, dust and magnetic storms etc which are capable of emitting an electro-magnetic signal, beam, wave, photon, electron or any other energy. In our cube, passively receiving information from every direction in the form of wave-particles (light); as the electromagnetic beams zip through the cube, say from north to south, they do so in the same manner as electricity travels, generating magnetic-fields at right-angles to their routes – which in turn re-create electric current at right angles to the magnetic-fields.  Thus, our cube is literally criss-crossed with energy and, astonishingly, the energy is coherent. This complex multi-directional pre-matter matrix forms, I imagine, the inertia of the universe. The energy (signals, information, wave-particles) persists, perseveres, retains discrete identity, etc across 14 billion light-years, across trillions of other space cubes, wriggling through potentially massively disrupting signals from quasars, black-holes, supernova, whiffs of hydrogen, wisps of helium, TV soaps, mobile-phones, human brain signals and a host of other universal events, and can still be detected and accurately analysed when they reach Earth.  Is this coherent, robust matrix anything other than The Aether?

 

EIG posits that within such a matter-less cube – note that the smaller the imagined cube the more wavelengths will be excluded from the observing screens (Casimir) - the miracle of transforming energy to matter occurs. A very large “volume” of energy spirals into a minute particle. This precipitation is triggered by the ubiquitous Hubble Expansion, which extenuates the field-forces, thus “cools” those energies, creates mass (primary-fractals, quarks etc) which combine to form “the particle zoo” and ultimately form human scale elements and molecules.

 

Dark Matter is the continual Hubble Expansion of every zone (sphere or cube) of space – which we measure as background gravity.

 

Dark Energy (the expansive force) is the release of mutual attraction in an energy field as matter precipitates from the energy (light). The remaining energy attenuates and expands.  (Is there a reverse of this when matter reverts to energy, as in an atomic explosion?)

 

Inertia (stable universe) is initially from the light-matrix described in the imagined space-cubes, above.

 

Inertia of matter (and surfaces) result from the binding forces between the EIG primary particles, as described in other paragraphs in this paper.

 

Sorry, Richard Dawkins, but we still need God to kick-start it all.

 

Particles or Waves – 24 March 2007

 

Are photons and electrons particles or waves and what is the speed and direction of travel? EIG would explain this at the Fractal level (a primary Fractal of matter) as waves of electromagnetic energy being drawn to an expanding Planck sphere where it collides with another incoming wave, spins and forms a Fractal which fills the vacuum and is then drawn to another vacuum in a contingent expanding sphere. The second sphere can be in any direction from the first. The just formed solo Fractal only stabilises when it joins with other Fractals; alone it may remain as matter, with a spinning surface, or it may unravel in sphere 2 and return to wave form. Thus any observed Fractal may appear in one millisecond to be matter (a primary particle) and in the next millisecond as energy – and it may travel with equal facility in any direction. All this occurs at the speed of propagation of light. “Quantum” is created as Fractals combine to form larger particles. These conglomerations of Fractals rely on their surface vacuums to hold them together. Small sets may be dissolved back to energy but larger sets may gain or lose specific numbers of Fractals – creating the quantum effect. 

 

(An unpublished) Letter to New Scientist – “Inflation” 1 March 2007

 

Inflation of the early universe, as reviewed in "Boomtime - NS, 3 March 07, by Peter Coles" and Dark Energy as explored by Stuart Clarke in NS, 17 Feb 07,  might be explained if Hubble expansion and gravity are thought of as opposite sides of the same coin. From the first moment of the Big Bang an energy field containing the whole universe started to expand. This matterless field, in which all zones were/are interconnected, as a field has no parts, has a wave front. As the wave front advances it attenuates the field, creating partial, momentary, Planck-sized vacuums that tug on the field and check the advance of the wave front. Within some of the Planck spheres energy collides and forms the first particles of matter - I call them Fractals. The Hubble-Expansion of the ubiquitous, momentarily attenuated, Planck spheres is the basic power of gravity - and thus along with the non-radiating material Fractals, is interpreted as Dark Matter. As Fractals (or Quarks) are formed, they compress great amounts of energy (E=MC2) and thus deplete the energy field, further attenuating the remaining energy; causing first a brief vacuum-induced pause in the advance of the wave front and then, as the matter-formation attenuation spreads throughout the field, the binding strength of the remaining energy is lessened and the wave front expands more rapidly. Thus Dark Energy, the expansionary force or Einstein's Cosmological Constant, may be the counter effect of Fractals of matter being formed, locking away energy from the field - allowing the attenuated field to accelerate. The Fractals are also centres of gravitation but behave differently to gravity-like Planck-spheres in the energy-field.

 

In a very small, early universe, compressed, cooling energy would, logically, precipitate more Fractals than would a widespread field and would lock-up a significant amount of the total energy.  The sudden weakening of the binding forces of the remaining field might account for rapid-inflation. I refer to this concept on my website as EIG. 

 

Dark Energy – Cosmological Constant – Quintessence – 15th February 07

 

EIG came into being to attempt to account for Dark Matter; hoping to avoid tangling with Dark Energy.  But as Stuart Clark in New Scientist describes Dark Energy as the biggest problem in cosmology (NS 17 FEB 07), it will somehow have to be knitted into trying to build a Theory of Everything such as EIG.

 

The Big-Bang still needs a God factor to kick it into life from the original singularity, which miraculously manifested in the No-Thing prior to Time & Space. Given that the fabric and energy field of the universe then leapt into Hubble expansion and expanded into the pre-existing No-Thing, EIG proposes that the expanding energy field had and still has a wave front, which as it expands attenuates or stretches the energy-field. This attenuation acts as a momentary brake on the expansion and, as an energy field has no parts and is a continuum, the attenuation acts on all zones of whatever size, simultaneously. At a quantum level, probably in spheres of Planck size, the attenuation creates vacuums in the energy field, which is the electro-magnetic or light field. It is these vast numbers of Planck zone vacuums that we register as the force of gravity and as Dark Matter.

 

As light rushes in to fill the vacuums and in rare instances makes a primary particle of matter – maybe a quark – the process concentrates light from the surrounding field and locks it into matter. E=MC2 informs us that a very large amount of light (energy) is locked into a very tiny piece of material.

 

It is this continuous precipitation of energy into matter at a quantum level which may be interpreted as Dark Energy.  Each particle of matter is a massive amount of energy – permanently (as far as human time scales are concerned) depleting the energy field – and locking into the store of material vast numbers of minuscule, previously freely expanding, Planck Spheres of energy. The energy field adjusts to the creation of matter by diluting the mass of the non-material field. The combined affects of fewer Planck Spheres; which are no longer expanding, creating vacuums and thus gravitational pull – together with the depletion or dilution of the everywhere-connected energy-field, reduces the moment by moment check on the out-rushing, expanding wave front. Thus the wave front, the edge of the observable universe, will expand more quickly and constantly accelerate. Thus Dark Energy is in fact the letting off of the braking effect of gravity (vacuums) allowing the universe to more and more respond to the original impetus that we read as Hubble Expansion.  QED and QED.  

 

The “expansive force” of Dark Energy is also known as Quintessence (a neat label) and is Einstein’s Cosmological Constant that he invented in his calculations to stop the then static pre-Hubble universe from being crushed by its own gravity back into a black-hole or singularity; and later, post Hubble, lamented as “my greatest mistake”.

 

This EIG explanation of Dark Energy seems to imply that the energy-field is finite – not infinite. But that needs some more thought.

 

Reconciliation – mathematical task – 25th September 06

 

I need to calculate the partial vacuum force created within a Planck sphere (or any sphere?) as it expands via Hubble Expansion at 2.304E-18% per second; and compare it with the Gravitational Constant applied to that sphere.

Notes: Vacuums “Do not Suck” they allow particles to spread out.

Cellular Automata theory, so far gets closest to my own picture of the fundamental structure. Authors calculate a 3D sphere has 26 (presumabaly identical) neighbours – how? Do these neighbours touch (or interpenetrate) the focus-sphere?

Light speed – is this constant a function of the (changing) size of the universe? It seems to be as utterly fundamental to QED as to Relativity.

 

Aether or Ether or neither – 12th September 06

 

 

 

 

Glenn Starkman's search for the ether (Ether returns in bid to oust dark matter - NS 26 August 06) as a field force, "not of light" but as "something that boosts gravitational pull" is interesting. Space-time and the universe logically is something rather than nothing. 'Nothing' may have preceded the universe. The most remote and empty spaces, wherever we may imagine placing a telescope, detector or screen, are criss-crossed by field forces, including electromagnetic radiation that we can, or may attempt to, interpret; from hot-regions, cold-regions, galaxies, super-novae, stars, planets, NASA space probes, mobile-phones, atoms, particles, molecules and Fred Hoyle's wandering viruses. We can observe the whole universe, on our minuscule retinas, from any point in the universe. In this sense every location is a holographic representation of the whole**. The fact that the signals, weak and strong, remain reasonably coherent across vast distances and billions of years is astonishing but undeniable. Therefore any zone, a cube or sphere, in space, however empty it may seem and of any scale, is perhaps "conditioned" by such intersecting fields. Matching and intersecting wavelengths result in blank spots. Such persistent intersections may be the underlying structure, or ether, of the universe and the source of the inertia we experience in the material universe. Given such a universal matrix - imagined as spheres of Planck Length diameter - where intersections occur may be points in 'empty' space at which fundamental particles of matter, quarks or photons, are created, as a proportion of field waves collide rather than co-exist. The unexplained given force that pulls the signals into collision - the God factor in this idea - is Hubble expansion, which, in expanding and attenuating every zone in the ether at  2.304E-18 percent per second generates the extra gravity which  astrophysicists detect everywhere. Speculating on EIG (expansion is gravity), the mathematics become fiendishly impossible as the (rare, new) fundamental particle moves randomly into any neighbouring, expanding Planck sphere, which are each themselves at the heart of a Russian Doll set of expanding spheres, ultimately as large as the accelerating Hubble universe. If the ether is resurrected by Starkman, and is a field, then as a field has no parts, all regions of a field are connected, which may allow for 'spooky' action at a distance.

 

**PS – 2 Oct 06 – Each holographic representation of the universe is in fact unique. Imagine a 10metre diameter screen on one side of the universe capturing all the electromagnetic signals and thus displaying a picture of the entire (visible) universe; then imagine another screen billions of light-years away on the “other side” of the universe. The 2nd screen will also capture a picture of the whole universe but the angles to objects will be quite different. There will be two different pictures of the whole. Similarly, every hologram will be different from every other – and thus unique. If each DNA pattern were to be influenced by “The Stars” then those DNA patterns will also be unique.

 

Noel Hodson

16 Brookside

OXFORD OX3 7PJ, UK

email  noel@noelhodson.com

+44(0)1865 760994 Fax 769384

website www.noelhodson.com

 

 

Bubbles & Black Holes – 24th July 06

 

Zeeya Meralis reports in New Scientist magazine 22nd July 06, on  the work of physicist, Anatoly Svidzinsky, at Texas A&M University, who speculates that galactic Black Holes may be mistaken identity, being in fact axions (see next item below) that have formed bubbles at the heart of the Milky Way and other galaxies. If axions exist, Svidzinsky calculates they would expand in the centre of the galaxy to weigh between 1 million and 2.5 billion solar masses – masses predicted for galactic black holes. He also assumes that very strong gravitational fields form a surface tension that repels rather than attracts.  Periodically its expanding surface pulls the bubble back. Thus he imagines a period of attraction, then repulsion, then attraction – and speculates that this occurs every 20 minutes – the pattern of X-ray flares as observed at the centre of the Milky Way and previously thought to be from a black hole.

 

If such bubbles and surface-tensions can theoretically exist; the information adds significant support to the basic EIG idea. Perhaps EIG would complete Svidzinsky’s theory.

 

(PS -   An Aspergers-savant, Daniel Tammet, reports that Prime Numbers are like large “smooth pebbles”. (His book ‘Born on a Blue Day’, Hodder & Stoughton) .This may tie in with the report below – imagining primes numbers of fractals/quarks as stable primary particles.  Note on the Music of the Primes – 27 October 04)

 

Making dark matter – 15th July 06

 

New Scientist magazine 15 July 06, reports the efforts of Giovanni Cantatore at the Italian institute for nuclear physics, to manufacture particles which might be the missing mass in the universe. They fire a laser beam across a magnetic field which is 100,000 time stronger than the Earth’s, and bounce the laser beam 44,000 times back and forth. This creates an anomaly in the calculations for the expected polarisation of the light – and in turn the mathematical anomaly may be caused by some of the light being converted to 1 millielectronvolt ‘axions’ – thought to be the missing dark matter required to glue the universe together.  To test the theory a laser will be fired through a polarising magnetic field at a wall, with a receiving polarising magnet on the other side. Some of the photons will convert into axions, cross the impenetrable, opaque wall, be reconverted to photons and recreate the original laser beam.

 

Apart from the imagined particle, the axion, this speculation fits well with EIG.

 

In the expanding universe a sphere of Planck Space, the smallest zone possible, expands, creates a vacuum that is filled by light, at the speed of light – formed as, say, a photon, some of which are polarised as expected. The photon may quit the first sphere, at the speed of light, by one of 6 exits (into one of the next interpenetrating zones or spheres). If the photon is energised as part of a laser beam it is more probable to exit the sphere on the continuation of its straight line trajectory – but the beam may be dissipated by photons taking one of the other five routes.  The one-sixth, say, of the original photons that continue in a straight line through the wall, being drawn by vacuums from Planck Sphere to Planck Sphere, will be reduced by 5/6ths at each layer of spheres, but some will get all the way through the wall; travelling while in the wall as electrons. They then encounter the re-polarising magnetic field, which gives the electrons enough energy to convert back to photons – and re-polarises them in accord with the original polarisation.  At the wall interface, some will escape as electrons before reaching the magnet. A very few photons will collide in Planck Spheres with other photons and a few of such collisions will result in a primary fractal of matter being formed by EIG. So, a tiny fraction of the units emerging from the wall will be such fractals of matter (maybe Quarks).

 

The missing Dark Matter with gravitational pull is of course the combined affect of the Planck Spheres nominally existing for human mathematical convenience in the electromagnetic field, expanding due to Hubble Expansion and attenuating the stuff of the universe, thus creating vacuums and therefore “pull” in every direction, at all times, which cannot be shielded.

 

Musing on Light – 22nd May 06

 

1)    Awareness exceeds the speed of light – the anthropic principle again:  If I can claim to be a representative sentient being, and if I stand between two light sources – say two stars, each one-light-year distant, the light from both stars reaches me simultaneously. Both are propagating light at 300,000 kilometres per second – and nothing can travel faster than light – but I know beyond all reasonable doubt that my awareness is seeing light from sources 2 light years apart, in one light year. I “know” what is happening to both stars at double the speed of light.

2)    The photons and/or wave fronts of the propagating light meet at the place I am situated as an observer. Photons are mass-less; as entities in the electro-magnetic field they have energy – gained through their rate of propagation but no weight and no substance. They are not “matter” they are not material. Let us assume that two photons from these distant stars collide at my location. Their impact “speed” is 600,000 KPS but as nothing can exceed 300,000 KPS and as photons are more than “nothing”, as they are “something”,  then at the instant of collision they must halve their speed to stay within the laws of physics; or put another way, one of the photons must lose all momentum just before the collision. Does the halted photon become matter at that moment? Or maybe their electro-magnetic charges repel each other and they swerve to avoid the collision. Or maybe they embrace and enter mutual orbits – travelling at 300 KPS. Is this the spin that creates a surface that matter requires to exist?

3)    Light structures – An article in New Scientist last week told of organising nano-particles of polystyrene beads into crystal like structures by shining laser beams on them. Depending on the type of laser, the beads formed into hexagonal or square lattice formations which collapsed as soon as the light switched off. The experimenter cannot explain what is happening – and nor can anyone. Is this a visible manifestation of underlying structures in the electro-magnetic field? Or are these structures perhaps mega-examples of the self-organising capabilities of the EIG fundamental particles? Can it contribute to the explanation of how the merest beam of power from, say a fading mobile phone, retains its coherence over vast distances – in the Bedlam created by 60 million mobile phones in the UK alone and despite existing in the same milieu as solar flares, Stella-novae and other hugely energetic events.?

 

Water is the most likely laboratory to test EIG - 10th April 06

 

An article last week in New Scientist revisited the claims that water has “memory” and that pure water, with no residue of diluted medicines, not even a single molecule, can nevertheless homeopathically cure patients. While on behalf of the respectable scientific community the article dismisses such far fetched claims as unworthy of study, it expounds on the quantum mysteries and memory capacity of water, describing it as the “magic ingredient that transforms chemistry into biology”.  DNA is inert without water and what has been found is that water approaching life-chemistry such as proteins and DNA, responds to the shape and conditions of the DNA, selects “good” DNA and catalytically enables the bases to bind (e.g. in the double helix). The recipe to create life seems to be ‘Take a bunch of dried up old elements and molecules, add water and shake’. The shaking (succussion) may configure the water to undertake its catalytic tasks.

 

All of this life enabling magic is in turn enabled by the strange properties of water, including  – easily formed and easily broken bonds;  expanding into its solid state which is less dense than as a liquid;  becoming a gas with very little heat added; and etc. These odd properties are enabled by the “quantum-zero-point-vibrating energies (virtual-particles)” which bind the hydrogen atoms. 

 

What are these zero point energies? They may include virtual neutrinos and gravitons (if gravitons exist). They persist in popping in and out of existence, according to Heisenberg, even if Hell Freezes Over and the Universe grinds to a dead halt at absolute-zero temperature.

 

You can no doubt see where I am taking this.

 

EIG addresses the conversion of field energies into matter and postulates that the driving force is Hubble Expansion. The first element created that we humans can apply any tests to, is the most common and simplest element – hydrogen. Hydrogen is the visible bridge between energy and matter. Hydrogen is the product when straw is spun into gold – by Princess Hubble. As the most fundamental particles, the form of and links between these tornado like sub-quantum EIG entities may, by the most outrageous and unsubstantiated application of wild imagination, be dictated by minuscule, the smallest possible, Planck spaces (spherical zones) accommodating the wavelength/s of various energies in the electromagnetic field.  Imagine there are six such EIG vortices positioned around a Planck sphere. They each spin at C2, repelling their neighbours, and each have a local, surface vacuum, attracting their neighbours. The six will be packed as closely as the dynamics allow – cheek by jowl but not touching. In the centre of the six is the highest vacuum, where a seventh vortex is trapped; this 7th vortex is the corner of another hexagonal group – and so on ad-infinitum. How many such entities are needed to make a hydrogen proton? And to finally make a stable hydrogen nucleus?

 

The zero-point-quantum-vibrations are of course, in this EIG concept, caused by Hubble Expansion, constantly creating the tiny vacuums, at all Planck spheres, which first attenuate and then draw light to the attenuated vacuum; where a virtual particle emerges and then disappears (or vice-versa) even at absolute-zero. Warm it all up a little and we get hydrogen. Clouds of hydrogen beget stars and galaxies and spawn the heavy elements – which are more stable than gases. Mix these heavier elements together and we get life-giving DNA chemicals – which function only in the presence of water (and not the chemically identical heavy water, deuterium, which poisons all but some very primitive life forms).

 

Water, being 2 parts hydrogen and 1 part oxygen, manifests in the macro world the underlying fluidity of our EIG vortices, with bonds that are easily forged and just as easily broken. The heavy elements pack the vortices in such combinations and such quantities (n.b. prime numbers) as to be difficult to separate.  As such, perhaps water is the laboratory in which to devise experiments to test the EIG proposition.

 

EIG – QED. 10 April 06.

 

 

Descriptive Essay on EIG – how it might work

 

Gravitational Repulsion at Long Range – Stephen Battersby NS 24th Sept 05

 

“Oh, for a theory of everything” writes Stephen Battersby, in an article revisiting Cold Dark Matter (CDM) and WIMPS (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles) In particular he raises “What’s more the LSST (large synoptic survey telescope) could reveal whether gravity becomes repulsive at long range.” That much debated effect which pre-dates Einstein.

 

My paper, here, explores whether EIG could account for gravity and CDM and it should further follow the line of logic of nested spheres, expanding and attenuating the stuff of the universe. Does some flip occur as the field effect from any one centre of expansion (say from Planck size) travels out to spheres of galactic size and bigger? It could be in the form of a reaction to the ever weaker vacuum created – or as energy rushes in to fill the attenuated space? For later.

7 DEC 05 – A diversion into Intelligent Design & Is the LIFE FORCE the 5th fundamental energy?

 

From my NEWS page. The media has recently given a lot of time and space to the debate of Darwinism-V-Intelligent Design. At the extremes of the arguments, on the one hand wild-eyed, Godless, white coated scientists insist that the universe is accidental and evolution is chaotic, while on the other hand, rabid, thundering preachers claim every word in the Bible is true and, as the Bishop or Armagh calculated in 1630-odd, God made the universe sometime in 4000BC – or thereabouts – and seeded the ground with fossils just to confuse us. As a brainwashed lapsed Catholic, once top of the class in Religious Studies, what do I believe?

 

The universe does give rise to intelligence, as defined and typified by our own intelligence, so intelligence has existed, in potential, from the outset. The laws of physics (and chemistry & mathematics etc), which we have so far discovered, are capable of intelligent extrapolation and application; these laws and their interactions we would define as intelligently, or at least logically, structured. So insofar as intelligence and logic are defined by us merely mortal humans, I believe the fundamental structure of the universe does manifest intelligent design. However, Intelligent Design as preached by the most committed bibliophiles comes perilously close to a belief in predestination – which is a heresy. Predestination assumes that God not only made everything as it now is, but avers that what will happen in the next moment, hour, day, week, year etc. is also designed by God. It is God’s Will. As such predestination denies mankind’s free-will, denying our ability and responsibility to choose good or evil or change ourselves or our environment; it thus denies sin and, if the logic is followed through, leads inevitably to despair. “Despair” is one of the Cardinal Sins which condems Catholics to the burning fires of Hell for All Eternity – whoops. So, to compromise as we enter the new epoch of intelligent cooperation, my position is that the universe is based on vastly intelligent and immeasurably powerful principles, but that these interact in extraordinarily complex ways to manifest, animate and give existence and life to all the phenomena we observe. In summary, the universe and all things in it, does evolve, split second by split second, governed by fundamental laws – which can be interpreted as laws of science or laws of God or both.

And finally, why isn’t the organising principle of the Life Force, so much in evidence wherever we care to look, defined as one of the fundamental laws of physics alongside Gravity, Electromagnetism, The Weak Nuclear Force and the Strong Nuclear Force?

Instanton – reproduced from New Scientist 6 August 2005.

 

This article is so close to the language and to at least one of the elements of EIG that I have typed it out in full. The journalist is not identified (copyright - NS 6-8-05 page 50 THE WORD).

 

 

 

Nothing is not what it seems. Or rather, the vacuum that exists throughout space and inside every atom in not empty at all. It has an intricate structure that determines how matter is built.

       Sounds bizarre? Blame it on the fact that the vacuum is permeated by a gluon field, which is the glue that binds quarks – the fundamental units of matter – into protons and neutrons. This gluon field can stick to itself like sticky tape, curling up into knots called instantons. These four-dimensional vortices are distant relatives of wormholes the space-time “tunnels” that could act as short cuts through the universe. Instantons create the distorted vacuum-scape that quarks have to navigate.

E cannot directly observe all this; so how do we know instantons exist? So far, they’ve onlty been seen in computer simulations. But new findings from Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, New York, hint at their ghostly existence (Physical Review Letters, DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.102302). In Brookhaven’s particle accelerator, a fireball 300 million times hotter than the surface of the sun melts” the vacuum. As a result, the gluon field loses its stickiness, quarks break free from one another and the instantons unfurl and disappear.

At least, the researchers assume this is happening, because a major effect that instantons have on the quarks suddenly disappears.

       What else do we know about instantons? They got their name because they blink in and out of existence, like twinkling stars or bubbles in soapy water. But despite their elusive nature, they have a powerful influence on quarks. Quarks have a property called spin; some spin to the left, others to the right. The equations that govern them stipulates that a left-handed quark can never turn into a right-handed quark , and vice-versa – a rule called chiral symmetry. When a quark that’s spinning one way passes through an instanton, it swirls around in the vortex and becomes so disoriented that it emerges spinning the other way round: imagine a right-handed glove swirling through a tornado so twisted that it comes out left-handed.

     Why is this so important? Well the result of all that twisting is that the quark gains mass. Quarks start out virtually massless, but when they loop through an instanton they gain energy, making them up to 60 times more massive. Since quarks make up the mass of protons and neutrons, which in turn comprise most of the mass of atoms, that means that more than 95 per cent of visible matter owes its mass to instantons. End

 

What might instantons mean in the EIG construct? EIG asks how matter (inertial “permanent” matter) is formed from energy. EIG posits zones or spheres in the electromagnetic energy field – perhaps equivalent to the gluons in the gluon-field cited above.  Hubble expansion attenuates these zones at the rate of Hubble-Expansion, momentarily reducing the internal vacuum and attracting (the glue) an inflow of light (at the speed of light). In most instances the light energy simply fills the partial vacuum, the zone disappears and no further event follows. The blinking into and out of existence of these fallow zones, creating momentary partial vacuums, could account for gravity, dark matter and dark energy. In a few cases the inflowing light arrives from different directions and collides in the zone (gluons). In collision the energy spins at 300kps x 300kps or 90billion kps. It is this spin which spins straw into gold and forges the particle from energy (is this energy equivalent to the 300 million times the heat of the surface of the sun as above?). The spinning “quark” or swirling energy meets no resistance and gains inertia and permanence as a particle because once spinning its “surface” repels other “quarks” - which are the only particles small enough to interfere with each other – while a surface vacuum, as exists at the “surface” of a tornado, attracts other “quarks” which are thus “glued” together in groups, spaced apart by their spin, creating a push/pull dynamic – which ultimately form “permanent” matter.  Only an equivalent energy – maybe 300 million times hotter than the sun, can “melt” these spinning structures and return the matter to pure energy. The article above says that quarks start out virtually massless then in an instanton they gain 60 times more energy and become real quarks. This seems to me to be a very similar description as EIG, where the Hubble-expansion zones suck in light – which, in the right conditions – creates a particle of matter.  Will Brookhaven factor the Hubble Expansion rate into their maths – just to see what it says?

PS – once formed the tiny particles e.g. neutrinos or photons, will move through space attracted by the infinity of expanding Hubble zones. Each zone they enter, they fill and kill the vacuum nullifying the attraction, then the particles may leave in any direction – I like to think they have 8 alternative routes out of a zone/sphere – which neatly accounts for probability and the difficulty of predicting their paths.  Hey Ho!

The holographic universe – thoughts on the Aether.

 

Wherever I position myself in the universe the retina of my eye – of both eyes – will capture images of near and distant objects, large and small. If I make a larger or smaller screen and erect it anywhere in the universe it too will reflect or record such images. What is actually happening is that the light, electro magnetic radiance from stars and planets – and the relative darkness of “empty” space, is transmitted across the sphere occupied by the retina or screen – no matter where I turn my gaze. If I move a few hundred yards or a few hundred light years, light will be found crossing the new zone I have decided to occupy.  Every zone or sphere, of any size, greater than the shortest wavelength, is criss-crossed with light – which my eyes or brain see as coherent. This implies that every sphere is a holographic representation of the whole universe. How real is this representation – has it the characteristics of energy and perhaps matter?  It certainly means that no zone exists where the radiation is not visible. How does the electromagnetic energy retain its original information despite many collisions and impedances across vast distances? The Aether it seems is extant – even if Einstein didn’t need it.

 

Memo on 9am BBC Radio 4 discussion, Roger Penrose, Carolyn Crawford (sp?) Martin Rees, Chair, Melvyn Bragg - 17 March 05

 

Dark Energy – is not energy and not necessarily dark. Martin Rees prefers to call it lambda the Cosmological Constant, which isn’t constant.  Scientific thought progresses through; Ideas, Speculation, Conjecture, Theories, Calculation, Observation; Experiment, and into Technologies (does it work?).  We learned that vacuum energy is not a vacuum; the background radiation, shadow of the Big Bang is 3K above absolute zero (I speculate that this might be the “heat” created by the movement of energy into a depleted zone which has expanded – expanded due to Hubble expansion – but see next item below.). Mostly they focused on the “force” – is it a force – that is causing the expansion of the universe to accelerate, namely Dark Energy. As I am taking Hubble Expansion as an observed given fact, what might be driving the expansion is not directly relevant; it could be angels pulling on the circumference. We need a repulsive force.

 

In EIG, what acts as a repulsive force? It is the surfaces of the spinning fractals or basic entities of matter. Inside the vortex is dense energy – so dense as to be matter, at the surface the C2 spin repulses other fractals (think of spinning tops bouncing off each other), just beyond the surface is a “constant” partial vacuum from where energy is taken to feed the vortex – a kind of meniscus of energy. It is the dynamic balance between the forces that brings inertia. And thus stabilises the universe.

 

These and other scientists seem never to picture the universe as teeming with energy, everywhere. Hold up a mirror or radar dish anywhere in our (visible) universe and it will record or reflect energy – light – electromagnetic spectrum energy. It is undeniably there. It could be seen with the naked eye crossing that area of space. What EIG addresses is how that energy, that infinite (as far as we know) field, produces matter. Did it only do so in the BB or does the process continue when light beams collide? Either will work for EIG – but space is NOT empty. Are scientists hung up on being labelled as believing in,  the aether which Einstein found no need for in his equations?

 

Memo on March 05 Scientific American article, Misconceptions about the Big Bang. - 17 March 05

 

Very clear article by Charles H. Lineweaver and Tamara M. Davis which is worth archiving for EIG. New to me is the statement that “objects inside the expanding universe do not expand.” They cite as an example of an object, a Galaxy. This is perturbing as I have to date assumed that everything, every spheroid zone, in the universe expands at the same rate 2.304E-18% per second. However, EIG still works if a fractal of matter, formed in the C2 vortex from pure energy, ceases to expand once it has been formed. The “extra” gravity in dense matter would then have to be explained – not by the surface shell of the vacuum holding out to create a stronger vacuum – but perhaps that to feed a collection of fractal vortex’s which have come together in a stable union – billions of them to make a particle – the shared or merged halo of depleted energy at the surface of the fractals, is a stronger vacuum relative to the number of fractals – Thus denser matter = more fractals = more pull.

 

In some ways this is neater than my earlier idea as the energy is spun into matter (straw into gold) by the C2 spin and as it is transformed, it passes a threshold which makes it permanently matter; reassuring if you don’t want your universe to evaporate one day.  This none expansion of material objects also removes the need for me to work out how much a six foot man expands in his lifetime – a compound interest formula of a very small number that my EXCEL can’t cope with.

 

Memo on the double-slit experiment – 15 March 05

See article in NS 5 March 05, Page 14, Peter Rodgers, on the double slit experiment, demonstrated across a time lapse. Consider and revisit.

Memo on Matter and Anti-Matter – 25th November 04

There is renewed speculation about anti-matter, whether it exists, where it exists and what it is; alongside ideas that diverse forms of matter might have different forms of gravity. This EIG idea has also posited that matter may behave differently when it is compacted – yet still expanding. On my next visit to this EIG theory I want to think about a “Matter Line” like the Number-Line in maths (does a matter-line already exist? R Feynman maybe?). At one end would be the densest of materials – down to the merest wisp of ephemeral forms – then extending beyond zero (pure energy) into negative particles and anti-matter. EIG indicates that anti-matter will be shown to be vacuums in the stuff of the universe – which has an attractive logical simplicity to it. (NB which math formulas deal with expanding spheres??  Pressure, gases, liquids?? And particularly the sphere/s surrounding an object sphere of low pressure – Weather systems perhaps).  

 

Note on the Music of the Primes – 27 October 04

 

The Music of the Primes by Marcus du Sautoy is almost completely incomprehensible to a non-mathematician such as me. But it triggers a vague thought that I want to write down and thus crystallise.

 

The book is about prime numbers (numbers that can only be divided by themselves or one without a remainder – thus they are the indivisible building blocks of all other numbers) and The Riemann Hypothesis. Bernhard Riemann (1826-66), conceived a “Zeta Landscape” being a four-dimensional model of mathematical functions based on the zeta-function, created “in Euler’s day” (1707-1783) into which Bernhard Riemann inputted real numbers (numbers on the mathematicians’  “number-line”) and, as his innovative new step, he also inputted  imaginary numbers (denoted by “i” of which the most usual example is the square root of minus one).

 

Four dimensions can be more pictorially thought of as four consequences – or four impacts – of a changing number. For example, as the author explains by reference to the economists’ Interest Rate, changes in the birth-rate have impacts on a large number of factors or dimensions of society – total population, housing required, schools, hospitals, transport, clothing etc. and some of these factors have consequences for the future on a time-line that is mathematically infinite.  To draw the reality of all such “dimensions” on a single graph or with a three dimensional model, from a single function or formula, is impossible – but they are nevertheless real effects or dimensions.

 

Riemann bridged fields of mathematics that had not before been linked and saw or conceived with the inner vision of a mathematician and geometrician that his zeta-landscape map could be extrapolated from peaks and valleys, including a single peak that rose to infinity (for the number one), down to “sea-level” where the outcome was always zero.

 

Here I am completely lost. But I read and can only believe that from this sea-shore of zero results, stretching north and south as far as imagination allows, these sea-level or zero results for any and all numbers (East & West or positive and negative numbers) fed into the zeta-landscape-function allow us to count – by counting the zero’s – the occurrences of prime-numbers between values, say from 0 to 10 or from 0 to 100,000,000. And it seems that Carl Gauss (1772-1855) had earlier estimated this same occurrence up to 100 million and his logarithmic based calculation Gauss’s Prime Number Conjecture, checked in modern times by actually identifying each prime-number on a computer (5,761,455 primes up to 100M – excluding the number one), showed only 754 more primes than reality – a tiny error of 100th of 1%.

 

Riemann did the same estimate on his zeta-landscape and reduced the error to 97 extra primes – just 1000th of one percent wrong.

 

Riemann then plotted where the “significant” zeros lay on his map or landscape and found that they lined up – on what has been termed a magical-ley-line. Not only do the zeros, representing primes, line up but they occur in patterns that come close to predicting what the next prime number will be. So far no recurring pattern has been identified in the sequence of prime-numbers that allows the next prime-number to be calculated from the sequence. Riemann then hypothesised that all the zeros, however many primes there are to infinity, would line up. That is the Riemann Hypothesis – with a million dollars still waiting for the mathematical proof.

 

What has this to do with music and what is my point? Part of the basis underlying Riemann’s zeta-landscape is the discovery by Pythagoras (ancient Greece) that musical harmony requires sound vibrations that are related to each other by whole number divisions – not parts of whole numbers. i.e. If the first pleasing note is played on a 20 pint jug of water, harmonious notes will be found at 10 pints, 5 pints, 4 pints, 40 pints etc. whereas discordant notes occur at 19 pints,  3 pints and all numbers that when divided into 20 leave a remainder.  These whole number relationships find parallels with prime-numbers, the building blocks of all numbers.

 

Whole, indivisible numbers put me in mind of the primary particles, the fractals and building blocks of the universe – that EIG – Expansion is Gravity, speculates about.

 

Marcus du Sautoy continues his narrative to include Probability Theory, Quantum Drums and Chaos Theory (which is actually order-out-of-chaos theory). Many brilliant modern mathematicians have and are contributing to the processes that bring progress – Marcus du Sautoy particularly cites the work of Hugh Montgomery (Princeton, Michigan and Cambridge) who followed Riemann’s zeros along the ley-line and found in 1971 that they would repel each other (space out) whereas primes tend to cluster or attract each other. And he observed that the zeros distribution was not random.  His distribution graphs uncannily mirrored similar graphs being drawn from experiments for the quantum energy calculations of the 68th element in the periodic tables Erbium. Montgomery’s thought was that perhaps the reality of quantum energies in atoms was the pattern that underlies the sequence of Riemann’s zeros. The hugely complex quantum energy sequences are mapped as if on a vibrating drum-skin – not as if they are a planetary system. 

 

What is fundamental to quantum physics starting with black-body radiation and, as yet, not understood is the quantum leap – the discrete changes – as if in sudden and not smooth steps – between energy levels. Similar steps occur at a very detailed level in prime number sequences “the prime number staircase”.  On a Cray computer Andrew Odlyzko at AT&T looked for Riemann zeros up to 10 trillion and found 100,000 zeros. A not entirely convincing pattern started to emerge. Odlyzko took the computations up to 1020 and found that plotting the sequence of Riemann zeros almost exactly matched similar patterns – quantum probability energies – found in the heavy nuclei of complex atoms – as if “being produced by some complicated mathematical drum”.

 

Here at last is my NB.

 

EIG posits an idea as to how matter (particles) is created from pure energy (light  - the electromagnetic field)  - namely by Hubble expansion sucking in energy and spinning it to form a surface. These primary fractals, as in string-theory, may be no larger than Planck’s Length which is 10-35 metres. These universal fractals are, like prime numbers, by definition indivisible – any division renders them back to pure energy. Like Riemann’s zeros they repel each other and they seek even spacing – but, like the prime number sequences, they are subject to forces that draw them together in patterns, like quantum energies, and clump them together. Do these universal fractals bind together in prime-number units? Are other numbers, non-prime numbers, of universal fractals inherently unstable?

 

The most recently calculated primes are 100 digits long. They are immense numbers; but even such vast numbers of universal fractals clumped together – say in the heart of a super-massive star or black-hole (but still Hubble expanding) – are not inconceivable.  Just how many universal fractals can we fit on the head of a pin?

 

Think on’t Lad !

News update – 3 September 04.

 

The search for the Higgs Boson – an alleged massive particle which would account for Dark Matter and Energy (85% of  the universe) – continues as does the search for anti-neutrinos. An anti-neutrino is NOT the antiparticle of a neutrino in the way that positrons are the anti-matter antiparticles of electrons – electrons reversed as it were. An antineutrino, if any exist, would be a sort of shadow neutrino, which has already been defined, at only 0.44 electron volts, as a “ghostly particle” so an antineutrino would be the ghost of a ghost. Scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, Germany have a laboratory deep below an Italian mountain range at Gran Sasso where the decay of enriched Germanium 76, shielded from all known sources of radiation, to Selenium 76 is observed. They claim to have seen 29 events in 10 years which they claim makes it 99.997% certain that these are real events, which as the decay process occurs do produce a neutrino and an antineutrino. Steven Elliot at the University of Washington State, Seattle, disputes the findings as does Ron Brodzinski at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington and as do the Russian physicists who supplied the enriched germanium from the Kurchatov Institute. The import of finding antineutrinos is that it would help explain how the universe evolved from the Big-Bang to contain matter not anti-matter or a neutral balance of pure light without any matter. Dave Wark of the University of Sussex, UK says “We now know that we must look beyond the standard model to explain dark matter. (New Scientist 4 Sept. 04.) – Back to this EIG theory perhaps?

 

Introduction, pre-EIG

 

The Universe is made of light, the electro-magnetic spectrum. Light is the basic “stuff” of the Universe and all things in the Universe are a manifestation of light. The serious gaze of the new born child, a creature, as we all are, made of light, constantly reminds us that the greatest mystery of physics is how life, intelligence, sentience and consciousness emerge from the electro-magnetic spectrum.

 

Paul Davies, writing in New Scientist on the 21 September 2002, sets out “seven wonders” of physics and his current preferred theories:

(1) What makes the Universe Tick? (The Big Bang & Superstrings) 

(2) What’s the Universe made of? (Cold Dark Matter - CDM)

(3) Was Einstein’s antigravity really a mistake? (An assumed repulsive force to balance gravity) 

(4) Why do we live in three dimensions? (Mathematicians assume there are many dimensions)

(5) Is time travel possible? (Probably not)

(6) Are we living in a cosmic colander? (Of black holes)

(7) How come I can ask these questions? (Consciousness.)

 

I would add to his list:

(8)    What is Inertia?

(9)    How are surfaces and objects formed and sustained?

(10)  What is the organising principle and the power of Life?

 

And finally,

(11)   Will Professor Stephen Hawking ever find his God?

 

Everyone would have their own list of universal wonders, each would be different and all would be valid. The wonders of the universe are probably infinite – there are certainly many times more questions than we have answers for. The way we answer such questions depends entirely on the accurate or inaccurate information we have and on the models we use to organise the information.

 

 

EIG Diagram

MAP, COBE and Some Astronomical EIG Numbers

 

Stephen Battersby reported in New Scientist on 15th February 2003 that data from the Microwave Anisotropy Probe has been analysed providing an accurate age for the universe. He also takes the trouble to define the factors he cites which is unusual and refreshing. For future reference:

 

Age of the universe is 13.7 billion years

Shape is Flat

Age when light first appeared is 200 million years

Contents include:

4% ordinary matter

23% dark matter Nature unknown

73% dark energy Nature unknown

Hubble constant (expansion rate) is 71km/sec/megaparsec

 

Stephen Battersby also tells us that a megaparsec is 3.26 light years.

 

The MAP data supports the theory of INFLATION that imagines a period of very rapid expansion shortly after the creation/appearance of the universe.

 

If you work all this out and reduce it to a layman’s terms it accords closely with the factor I had set out (below) based on the reports that the edges of the visible universe recede from us at the speed of light.

 

The Hubble constant as stated above works out as the universe expanding at a minuscule percentage every second – of 0.0000000000000002303633783% or in handy mathematical format

It is                            2.304E-18% per second.  

My figure was           2.348E-18% per second.

 

If expansion is gravity – it must occur everywhere at all times. EIG proposes that the rate of refilling the attenuated energy vacuums that occur in matter, inside planets, for example, is held back momentarily and strengthened by the shells or surfaces around the fractals of matter (perhaps quarks) but such delay aside, let us apply Hubble to a six foot man.

Six foot man expands infinitely – says MAP and COBE

 

To get down to small enough units required to allow EXCEL to show the calculation, the man’s height, in his six foot high and six foot wide bubble of expanding space, had to be converted into millionths of millimetres – which are pretty small. Using the Hubble factor I extracted from the MAP report, 2.304E-18% per second, our man would expand in a year by just 1.32 millionths of one millimetre – ignoring the cumulative effect. This would be unnoticeable to most of us and in fact is undetectable by normal measuring techniques as all the measures also expand at precisely the same rate. Is this rate enough to make him universally attractive?

 

Bear in mind the mechanism that would be at work: The trillions of spaces – say Planck lengths (Planck’s Length is 10-35 metres, Hubble expansion is 10-18 metres per second, or nearly twice the decimal scale; about a billion, billion times larger – but to squeeze that amount of expansion into Planck space, we can reduce the time to a billion. Billionth of a second) – occupied by the man’s material body, expand by this trivial amount. The QED or light energy attenuates creating virtual vacuums, attracting energy (light) to flow into the vacuums. These in turn partially evacuate the larger spheres around the space occupied by the man – partially because the surroun