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FuturTele4.doc-13May99-For Bank Dresdner


This light-hearted, humorous chapter predicts the future. It is written by the author of The Economics of Teleworking, as if looking back from the future to the present day.  It makes some interesting forecasts and speculates on where telework will lead society. The references, map and facts it contains about the present are reliable data.





Its a funny old World.. 3

The Resurrection of Russia. 4

The Birth of Telework 1980-1992. 5

Berlin gave a lead. 7

Hearth & Home & Work may not mix. 9


Status & Information Technology. 12

Every Job is Teleworked -  Statistics from 1999 to 2015. 12


Banking on Automation and Saint Margaret 17

Tax Havens - Off-Planet Companies. 19

The Lost City of Chartered Accountants. 21


slide 8 – THE CITY OF LAWYERS. 24

Truth from Fiction. 26




The Transition from an Industrial to an Information Society.

Multi-Media History Lecture Module 8 - The growth of telework in Europe.






Delivered by Mr Noel Hodson via IntelSat on 21st January 2021, to students, attending the International Cyberspace University of Europe.


(Download speech, text, graphics and video, in any language, for 5euro$. Say INTERNET, MMLM8-ICUE-HODSON to your Intel-implant-chip & specify language at the prompt. NB Edu-Costs are deductible expenses for global-tax purposes and are automatically notified to your taxing authority).

21st January 2021





Its a funny old World


From 1988 to 2008 the rapid growth of telework in Western Europe surpassed the most optimistic contemporary forecasts as it swept across the European Union, forcing radical economic, fiscal and monetary changes upon the traditional feudal structures that still persisted in those last decades of the 20th century. In order for today’s ever increasing 400 million teleworkers to be able to live anywhere on the planet, several key, unquestioned paradigms that governed lives back in 1999, had to be changed. These included; the daily commute to and from work; the concept of bosses and employees; quaint military style rules about clothes and haircuts; hundreds of different languages; fixed national borders - often guarded; thousands of local financial systems - anonymously controlled and unaccountable; immense differences in job-rates around the world; widely varied national taxes - and tax havens; dozens of incompatible computer and telephony systems; and primitive, exclusive class, caste and religious systems.  We shall examine the history of the changes wrought by the Information Society and see how from 1999 to 2021 the current teleworking conditions came into being.       



The Resurrection of Russia


First, we need to look at an Industrial Economy that exemplified the transition from an Industrial to an Information Society. Russia, the World’s largest country, only grew to be the wealthiest and most powerful economy in Europe after it spanned its vast land masses with optic laser broadband telecommunication networks and capitalised massively on the fabled Boris Yeltsin Resurrection Phenomenon. 


When Boris (The Eternal) Yeltsin seemed to die for the third time in May 2001 and was yet again resurrected, appeared on CNN and sacked his Prime Minister and entire government for the fifteenth time, the miracle was ascribed to the healing properties of Pure Russian Chernobyl Vodka (PRCV). Within days, the global demand for PRCV was so great that the price per bottle hit 26 thousand Euro. Governments around the world ditched their gold reserves and bought PRCV, making it the world’s hardest currency. PRCV Bonds and Futures Certificates underpinned the global financial system until Vatican hagiographers in 2007 pronounced the event a fake. It was found that Mr. Yeltsin had in fact died in 1989, his body had been preserved in alcohol and his later TV appearances were the work of the Soviet Academy of Morticians & Film Animators. However, by 2007, Russia had wisely used its PRCV exports to re-build its advanced communications infrastructure and its economy and had overtaken the USA and the EU in telework and electronic commerce.          


Throughout the chaotic decade of 1988-2008, Russia’s 150 million people barely survived and came late to the Information Age. Their vast natural resources of oil, gas, tritium, hydro-electricity, agriculture and Vodka were neglected and under-utilised.  Electronic transactions were near impossible. For example, in 1998 Professor Dr. Josef Hochgerner, a telearbeit expert from Vienna [1][1], drove hundreds of miles to meet a Russian academic colleague to hand over cash for an EC sponsored project, because Russian banks were more likely to steal the Euros than to complete an electronic transfer. Communications equipment was very scarce; for example in 1999, Rostov University owned only two aged desk-top computers. Moscow University was hardly better equipped with limited access to the Internet. But, when the KGB were privatised in a joint-venture with George Soros, they sold vital technology to Russia, creating the modern wireless telephony system. Reliable cyberspace global banks handled the ordinary citizens’ transactions securely and, with the advantage of the latest technologies, Russia leapfrogged from Industry to Electronics into the dominant economic position in Europe.   


The Birth of Telework 1980-1992


Telework, or telecommuting, started 40 years ago in 1980 when Jack Nilles at the state traffic authority in California realised that around the World, every work-day, about 450 million people travelled an average ten kilometres to work, taking about an hour, and every evening, before supper, they all travelled back again - for another hour. The weight of the vehicles used to transport these hapless commuters was more than 500 million tonnes. If parked on a square kilometre, the vehicles would form a stack six kilometres high, about the height of Mount Everest - wobbling precariously on its wheels, propelled on its daily 20 kilometres round trip by poorly refined rock-oil. Jack Nilles[2][2], Alvin Tofler, Gil Gordon [3][3] and other pioneers realised that this gargantuan, polluting, costly morning and evening commuting ritual was not the best way to organise work. They promoted the concept of “taking the work to the people, not the people to the work”.  My own early work identified the most powerful economic rationale, namely that every hour per work day saved from non-productive activities, such as commuting, was equivalent to 30 eight-hour work days a year[4][4]. Typically a teleworker converted from full time commuting to full time at home gave an extra 30 work-days to their employer and gained 40 work-days extra leisure and family time. This was the logic for the “effortless increase in productivity” experienced by most teleworkers.


But ten years later, in 1990, both in the EU and the USA, telework and telecommuting hardly existed and were not even featured on Microsoft’s ABC Spell-Checker; which in those days ranked as the highest scientific proof of its total non-existence.  In the UK, in 1988, surveys commissioned by British Telecom showed just a few hundred teleworkers among a 27 million workforce. In Germany, France, Italy, Spain and most of Europe, telework was unknown. But a societal explosion was about to occur - the Electronic or Quiet Revolution had amassed its troops and now launched its attack.  Promoted by visionaries in the European Commission, including Industry Commissioner Martin Bangemann, and in the State owned telephone companies, the Information Society was being born.


Berlin gave a lead


Germany, recognising the road to the future, hosted The First European Telework Assembly[5][5] on “New Ways to Work” at the then empty Reichstag building in Berlin, in November 1994; a gathering of 300 elected representatives and telework promoters (n.b. the reunited German government moved from Bonn to Berlin in 1999). But Germany was hampered in adopting telework by some of the highest telephone call charges in Europe. The Berlin conference was addressed by another visionary thinker and author, Professor Charles Handy[6][6], who urged the European socio-economic juggernaut to signal its engine room to start changing direction. Prof. Handy illustrated his advice with an Irish tale of a traveller asking for directions.  “Go down this road….”, the Irishman told the traveller, “…….for a few miles. Go through the woods, up the hill and down into the valley beyond. After a tall pine tree you’ll come to a pub. Beyond the pub you’ll see a little stone bridge over a pretty rill. “  The traveller nodded attentively and jotted down the instructions. “Two miles before the bridge …” continued the Irishman confidently,  “….. you turn Left!”.   Prof. Handy reminded the conference that if society waits until it reaches the bridge, it would be too late to turn left - action for change was needed immediately.


The Mayor of Berlin welcomed the technology enabled trend towards flexible and tele-working but she expressed concern for the impact on home and family life if people stopped going out to work. Baroness Seaar  summing up the conference, echoed the Mayor’s concerns saying that in her youth, when men went out to work and women stayed at home, ladies were very clear about family & work boundaries, vowing that “we may marry them for Better or for Worse ------ but not for Lunch”.


Hearth & Home & Work may not mix


A study by marital psychotherapist Pauline Hodson following her paper “Bringing Home the Electronic Baby” [7][7]1996, cited the case of a husband who switched from daily commuting to working at home. His clear thinking wife banned him from the house for set hours each day, on the basis that real men were not at home at such times. He would often stand outside in the rain until she allowed him back into the house.


The new societal protocols that evolved between 1999 and 2005 (work sponsored by the Dublin Foundation for Living and Learning[8][8]) & (see publications of The Work, Information, Society and Employment[ W.I.S.E.] Forum, Austria on new ways of working[9][9]) helped to resolve these difficult primitive spatial and territorial issues - giving rise to the present enlightened understanding for people working at home. For example, deciding who should change the baby’s dirty nappies, who should load the washing machine and how to reserve time on the home Global-Video-Conferencing-Suite - all in a harmonious marital atmosphere of sweetness and understanding.  





The Car Commute was King until the 2003 Gridlock Catastrophe


Family adjustments were the least of the barriers experienced by early teleworkers. Many traditional employers abhorred the new regime and resisted any changes to the status quo. In 1993, the Chief Executive Officer of a 200 man UK consultant engineering firm (most engineers were men in those far distant days) when asked to reconsider the role of the company car, instinctively grabbed the startled telework adviser by his tie and tried to throttle him.  


The company car was then the prime status symbol of workplace hierarchy. In Europe, more than in America, cars were given to employees. They could cost as much as a house; were built to carry 5 or 6 people at up to 180kph; though they rarely carried more than one person at more than 50kph; lasted on average 5,500 days and spent 98% of that time on display in the company car park.  Seniority was evident from the weight and size of the car awarded. Middle managers had 1,500 kilo Fords or Renaults, of 7sq metres. Senior managers flaunted Mercedes of up to 2,000 kilo and 12sq metres; while Board Directors might have a 2,800 kilo Bentley Mulsanne or Mercedes 600 that occupied 17sq metres of road space.


The company car was finally dropped as a status symbol after the Great European Gridlock in November 2003, when an estimated 180 million vehicles took to Europe’s roads simultaneously between 4pm and 5pm, in fog. It took five days of airlifting vehicles from crossroads and roundabouts before traffic could move again; and burned an estimated 90 billion litres of fuel as drivers tried to keep themselves warm or air-conditioned. 


33,000 people died in their cars, which was considered a tragedy until it was realised it matched the statistical normal death-rate and that in fact they should be celebrating that 150,000 fatal road accidents had been avoided. The surface of the Route Peripherique, in Paris, was torn up for missiles by furious Frenchmen missing their dinners, breakfasts and lunches. It was later recognised that, by an esoteric existential mechanism understood only by French philosophers, the road surface had actually been improved by the event.


 The Autostrada del Sol, a private toll road, remained closed for five years with all the vehicles locked in, while Italian courts considered claims by the owners against drivers for blocking the road - and by drivers against the owners for not keeping traffic moving.  The loss of productive time across Europe and the costs of parachuting in food, water and mobile toilets to stranded drivers caused the 2004 recession and temporary collapse of the global financial system.       


Status & Information Technology


Now, of course, status in 2021 is indicated by home-office equipment, access levels at the Cyberspace-Office-Head-Quarters and by how many youth-rejuvenation-programmes the company provides. The most successful executives at the top of the hierarchy are typically 86 years old, look about 25, and have 300 tetra-bytes of RAM surgically implanted under their scalps, linked by an optic fibre aerial to the company Intranet. Though young looking, they tend to be a little bit creaky over the 100 metre hurdles and swallow a handful of  Viagra-Super-Megaboost-Plus before they go out on a date.


Every Job is Teleworked -  Statistics from 1999 to 2015


As history confirms, the family problems and resistance from traditional managers were eventually overcome and the telework population grew rapidly as computer-telephony halved in price and doubled in power every two years. By 2000, at the turn of the Millennium, there were over 15 million USA teleworkers,[10][10] over 4 million UK teleworkers[11][11], and 4 million mainland Western Europe teleworkers[12][12].  The implications for Europe were that 8 million or more computer-home-offices had been equipped, almost all with Internet access provided by the employers (including about 25% self-employed). From UK and USA surveys it can be assumed that about 25% of the computer-home-offices were used on any one work-day; giving the bases for calculating the impact on road and telephone traffic[13][13].


These numbers were tangentially confirmed in a 1999 survey by NOKIA,[14][14] then the largest mobile phone maker on Earth, that showed: - on March 31st 1999. Mobile Phone Subscriptions - Finland 62%; Norway 52% - Sweden 49% - Iceland 42% - Denmark 41% - Italy 39% - Portugal 36% - Luxembourg 35% - Austria 31% - Switzerland 27% - Ireland 26% - Netherlands 26% - Greece 24% - France 21% - Spain 21% - Belgium 21% - Germany 19%. (n.b. at that time, Deutsche Telecom call charges were still the highest in Europe, discouraging use of the telephone). Numbers of mobile phone subscribers were growing at 70% per annum. Here lay the seeds for the modernisation, skipping the wired stage, of Russia, Eastern Europe and other parts of the World where wired telephone networks had been under-developed.                     


The most reliable telework statistics for 1998 were gathered by the European Commission project DIPLOMAT, the European Charter for Telework. Displayed on a map, using the old pre-Union political boundaries that existed at the time, the picture was as below:-   











Note - This map dates from 1999, before the formal reunification of East and West Europe brought Russia and CEEC into the European Union and when the traditional political boundaries still existed.  Today, in 2021, the citizens’ groupings and devolved governments are complex and constantly changing. Students - see - INTERNET-REGIONAL-DEVOLVED-GOVERNMENTS to access maps which detail the 344 (in June 2021) devolved regional governments within the European Union umbrella.


What the 1999 figures revealed was a large difference between the national statistics for teleworkers and the industry statistics for mobile phones.  Given that the majority of mobile phones were then owned by people who had jobs, even allowing for the 1999 fashion for children and vulnerable older people to be given a mobile phone, it would seem that the extraordinary increase in workplace communications mobility was not being regarded by statisticians as “location free, advanced communications enabled working” - one of the definitions of teleworking then in vogue. This difference was hardly surprising as the rate of change was so fast that no institutions and very few individual observers could keep pace with it.   


At the same time as German teleworkers were recorded at only 200,000 people - just 2.1% of the workforce - and as having 19% of subscribers (homes) owning a mobile phone, Deutsche Telecom led the World by publishing, in January 1999, a telework agreement for their 210,000 employees, endorsed by the employers, employees and trade unions[15][15], and paving the way for a large surge in numbers of teleworkers.


As “working where you live - and living where you work” became possible and fashionable, all jobs that could be made location free were freed from fixed, central offices.  This shift in travel habits at first boosted the traditional car industry as people bought vehicles for leisure rather than for commuting to work. But as they cut down on commuting and on business travel and therefore cut down their annual kilometres, people kept their cars longer, changed them less often and cared less about the status they inferred.  A UK teleworker cut his business & commute travel from 60,000 kilometres a year down to 6,000. 


Fewer cars were sold, fewer cars were made, more cars were shared and new models became smaller, lighter and more fuel efficient; leading to the current 2021 concepts of plastic utility vehicles, for every citizen to use - achieving 85% use of a vehicle’s lifespan, with almost pollution free propulsion.


By 2015 most jobs that could be teleworked had been converted, and the daily commute was a distant memory. About 60% of the 165 million EU workforce worked via computer-telephony in 2015. As traditional heavy industry, agriculture and manual work was increasingly automated and jobs in those sectors declined[16][16], The other 40% worked in the service-sector dealing face to face with customers, such as in Hotels, Cafes, Theatres, Sports, Health Care, the few remaining Retail Shops, Face-to-Face Training and in Laboratory Teams. Politicians still physically gathered in parliaments in 2015, but communications technology became so user friendly and secure that even the most Machiavellian politicians started to use it in preference to secret meetings in the corridors of power.   



Banking on Automation and Saint Margaret


The transformation was not without pain and crises. The signals were very clear in all OECD countries as long ago as 1990 that computers and automation would decimate jobs in banking, financial services and in heavy manufacturing.  The UK had led the telework revolution in Europe since 1985, because it then had the highest unemployment, the most liberal labour laws, the most flexible trade unions, the first privatised telecommunications monopoly exposed to competition and they also had the unforgettable Margaret Thatcher.  Baroness Thatcher, as she became in 1994; The Blessed Margaret of Knightsbridge, as was in 2006 and finally Saint Margaret, Patron Saint of flexible, part-time and non-tenure working contracts, canonised by the Vatican Council ten years after her untimely death. Her holy remains are interred in the Chapel of Regulation Free Entrepreneurs, built with off-shore funds donated by the Society of Misunderstood and Oppressed Retired Multi-Millionaires.  

As soon as powerful personal computers enabled every citizen to count and to follow economic models, global transactions and added-value chains, the mysteries that had surrounded profit and money for thousands of years evaporated. Prior to the publication of the “2002 European Global Guidelines on Profits, Rewards, Taxation, Privacy & Banking” conventions, Income had been a less acceptable subject for polite conversation than Incest.  What people earned or took as income and what they owned or would inherit were still, in 2001, topics carrying the strongest social taboos. With 21st Century technology at everyone’s fingertips, the general population demanded accurate 21st Century information about the economic systems that governed their lives. Subject for the first time in history to public scrutiny, all the hidden inefficiencies, inflated margins and secret siphons were examined and corrected.  At long last the financial money-economy was brought up to date with the real-economy, the majority of people in the World were included in the money-economy, markets were hugely enlarged and wealth creation exploded. Poverty was all but abolished by 2017.

What had been a global cartel, the financial services industry, employing over two million people in the UK alone, was converted almost overnight into an open-accountability system, run on a few computers, with checks and balances that any concerned citizen could examine from their own PC’s. Two million UK jobs were replaced by automated systems maintained by less than 50,000 people. The now familiar and indispensable Global Financial Reporting Systems were created in 2012 to eradicate excessive speculation and to ensure world-wide stability.  The Internet Trade Agreement was ratified by most nations at the same time, enabling universal access and a massive increase in very low cost international transactions. In 2003, Financial Services were included in the GAT trade agreement, opening them to global competition for the first time.  Teleworkers, already freed from fixed offices, could now obtain mortgages to buy a home and insure it, almost anywhere on the planet.


Tax Havens - Off-Planet Companies


As heavy manufacturing was fully automated alongside financial services, the resulting unemployed were encouraged into self-employed teleworking and marketing their labour across the world. Millions of previously employed tax-payers were thrown into the maelstrom of self-employment and furnished with advanced communications technology. Those who earned money rapidly discovered that a solo-teleworker in, say, Bonn, could arrange their tax affairs like any international company - size did not matter. Millions of new companies suddenly were registered in the Cayman Isles, Channel Isles, Bermuda, Dublin Tax-Free-Zone and many other welcoming tax regimes. French employers jumped on the band-wagon to avoid the highest pay-roll taxes in the World. They routed their job offers, through cyberspace, to Channel Isle companies, formed by solo French teleworkers. No European registered companies made any taxable profits as invoices in foreign languages, in strange currencies, dropped out of cyberspace the day before the company year-end, and stripped the profits out to some exotic location. Off-Planet  companies were registered on accommodating orbiting satellites, leaving tax authorities puzzling over the legal jurisdiction of the transactions that flashed at the speed of light through the satellites’ broadband channels.

National treasuries were in chaos. It all came to a head in 2011 when a census purported to show that the tax-resident population of Panama exceeded the workforce of France and that Malta claimed 400 million resident and domiciled tax registered citizens, who qualified as Domiciled as they all claimed to have the intention to be buried on the island - requiring a land mass the size of  Spain. The crisis for tax collections in all OECD countries led to the sudden launch of a new global currency, EuroDollarYen (EDY) requiring all citizens to convert their balances and at the same time explain their source and tax status.  The massive tax collections and money confiscation that followed more than compensated for the previous years of poor treasury income, but the nations involved took many years to agree on their shares of the revenues. The Global Fiscal Responsibilities Convention signed in Reykjavik in 2017 finally brought an end to cyberspace tax avoidance and to money laundering. It at last created the fiscal and financial stability for teleworkers to live in any place they liked.


The Lost City of Chartered Accountants


Bookkeeping and accountancy were obviously suitable for teleworking as transactions could easily be notified by telephone data transmissions, processed and forwarded to any office on Earth. Teleworkers found they rarely needed to physically attend central offices, particularly with the growth of Cyberspace-Head-Quarters, open 24 hours a day and accessible as a virtual person from anywhere.  Teleworkers began to form communities of special-interest-groups, often based on hobbies, such as mountaineers, or gardeners, or skiers, or skin-divers, etc. and bought houses in areas suitable for these hobbies. The rich diversity of today’s devolved communities grew out of these experimental communities.

One such group that failed was the apocryphal city of chartered accountants. Supposedly located in or near Denmark the population grew rapidly as hundreds of thousands of Chartered Accountants, shunned and mocked as boring by Monty Python and by generations of their own country-men, found peace, tranquillity, respect and balance in a remote district, somewhere in the Nordic countries. The plan was flawless - by gathering all the accountants on Earth into one place, they would create a monopoly and cartel that would handle all global bookkeeping and accounting transactions.  At first it is thought that the city flourished but sadly the early promise was not maintained and the city disappeared into the mists of time. Historians speculate that the accountants could not breed and produce children; or died very young - possibly of boredom; or were infected by a peculiarly virulent computer virus that crossed the Intel-implant/brain barrier; destroyed their trail-balances and control-accounts and with them, their will to live. It remains a tragic mystery.   




No mystery however surrounds the fate of the City of Lawyers, founded in a domineering position high in the Italian Alps with video-links to every Court in Europe. Over two-hundred thousand made homes in Legalopolis and many marriages were celebrated. But as problems arose and they sought help from each other, the bills they raised against their neighbours escalated to such proportions that every citizen had to file for bankruptcy and the City was sold off at a knock down price to a community of virtual university tutors, who live there to this day.

Teleworking, from its earliest days along with computerisation, freed mankind from the tyranny and manacles of the production line in factories and offices. Now, in 2021, most factories are computer controlled automated facilities, many underground near to raw materials, that are switched on and off in response to just-in-time-stock control instructions, by managers perhaps living hundreds of kilometres from the factories.  Citizens are free to live wherever they like - enjoying the same financial, taxation and social security systems as they would in their countries of origin.  Bureaucracy and government is infinitely subtle and complex, managing hundreds of devolved European regions, catering for a multitude of local community preferences under the umbrella of necessary global agencies. The transformation to an Information Society will never be complete - but it has reached a most satisfactory plateau.



© Noel Hodson, OXFORD, UK, May 1999







copyright Noel Hodson SW2000 Telework Studies








































Truth from Fiction.


The Author, Noel Hodson, has 30 years accountancy experience, was an employer and entrepreneur, specialising in long term tax-planning. He has advised more than 5,000 SME’s and has been a telework consultant to British Telecom and the European Commission for ten years. He wrote the Economics of Teleworking (BT Labs 1992) and Teleworking Explained (Wiley & Sons 1993) and is widely known for his seminal work on the Costs & Benefits & Ecological Impact of telework. His WEB Site is Http://www.NoelHodson.com  Here he differentiates the facts from the fiction in this chapter and identifies the forecasts that he believes will really occur. In order of appearance:-


Present Day Facts - Page 2 - Prof. Hochgerner did carry Cash from Austria to the Russians because Russian banks might steal the money. Rostov University has only 2 computers. - Page 3 -  Jack Nilles, Alvin Tofler, Gil Gordon etc. are the pioneers of telework, from about 1980. Cars that commuted in 1996, parked on a square kilometre, would have made a tower 6 kilometres high and did commute 20 kilometres a day. An hour per work-day saved is equal to 30 work-days a year.  The words “telework” and “telecommute” were not on Microsoft PC spell-checkers until about 1996. - Page 4 - In 1998 there were only a few hundred UK teleworkers; in 1999 there are 4 million UK teleworkers - about 1.5 million on any one work-day. The Berlin Conference report is factual. - Page 5 - Pauline Hodson delivered her paper “Bringing Home the Electronic Baby” in Vienna and Stockholm in 1997. A UK engineering manager did unconsciously grab me by the tie, and start to choke me, when I raised the “company car” issue.  -  Page 7 - Computer telephony equipment has roughly doubled in power and halved in price year by year - BUT the old 1960’s advice remains true of installing any computer system - “double the cost estimate and double the time budget to make it work”.  All the statistics on page 7 and on the map, are accurate as in 1998. It is a fact that statisticians are lagging behind the rapid changes in the information society - which are more accurately counted in the spread of mobile phones.  - Page 9 - The telecommuter who cut his car use from 60,000 km. to 6,000 km. per annum is a real case study.   

Future Forecasts -  Page 1 - Telework will force radical economic and political changes. The boss-employee relationship will be replaced by a collegiate culture. Computer telephony global compatibility will be achieved. - Page 2 - Russia will become the wealthiest nation in Europe. - Page 3 - Russia will bypass the wired telephony stage and use wireless systems.  -  Page 6 - I forecasted GRIDLOCK in the UK before 2007 in an analysis called “The Impact of the Information Society on Future Traffic Congestion 1997-2017”; it is likely that, despite teleworking, Europe will suffer several gridlocks before it builds integrated transport systems.  I also forecast that Cyberspace Headquarters, virtual reality, 24 hours a day, electronic offices will be developed; where attendees will be able to “see” each others’ virtual presence. I forecast that people will have implanted computers in their bodies.  - Page 9 - I forecast that cars will be sold more for leisure use than for business use, within the next decade; and that cars will be shared, via computer systems, to use them for a larger percentage of their lives. I forecast that 60% of all EU jobs will be teleworked jobs, (location independent) by 2015 and that only 40%, essentially people-face-to-face-with-people jobs, will be at fixed locations. I forecast that Wired-Democracy will be slow to arrive, but will certainly come and replace traditional parliamentary meetings. Voters will vote on many issues every year in electronic referenda. -  Page 10 - There will be a huge reduction in the number of financial services jobs, from 1999 to 2009, across the world. I forecast there will be a flood of cyberspace tax-haven planning for ordinary citizens before international agencies are established to harmonise tax rates world-wide. And that access to real information about money and economics will lead to the end of hundreds of years of secret profits and financial abuses - leading to the end of poverty. - Page 11 -  I forecast that numbers employed in financial services and in automated manufacturing will be reduced by 90% by 2010-15 and that international controls on speculation in stock, commodities, money and derivatives markets will be in force.  I forecast that OECD citizens will be able to live in and work from almost any part of the planet by 2014 with normal social security.  Somebody will register an “Off-Planet” company, for tax purposes, on a satellite, in the next 5 years.  -  Page 12 - A new global currency will be introduced without warning to catch all money-laundering, requiring criminals to explain the source of their wealth; computers will track all honest and dishonest flows of money world-wide. Tax avoidance and money laundering will be ended by international agreements - sooner than we like to think. - Page 13 - I forecast that most consumer goods will be manufactured in “factories that are computer controlled automated facilities, switched on and off by teleworking managers via the Internet”.  And, finally, though a City of Accountants is not likely, I believe that geographic and national boundaries will dissolve and that communities will become self-governing, devolved, special interest groups under the global umbrella of international agencies  - e.g. for finance, defence, clean air etc. Therefore, government will become infinitely subtle and flexible. “A subtle patchwork of hundreds of devolved communities under a European umbrella”.

















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[1][1] Jenseits Der Grossen Transformation - Arbeit, Technik und Wissen in der Informationsgellschaft - Josef Hochgerner - Locker Verlag - April 1999, Centre for Social Innovations, Vienna.

[2][2] JALA International and TAC (teleworking advisory committee), USA - search for WEB Sites.

[3][3] Telecommuting Review - monthly magazine 1984 -1999 Editor Mr. Gil Gordon. gil@gilgordon.com

[4][4] The Economics of Telework - BT Martlesham Laboratories 1992.  & Teleworking Explained - WILEY & Sons, Chichester and New York - ISBN 0-471-93975-7.

[5][5] Contact Andrew Page, organiser of the Berlin Conference - by Email: Protocol@ECTF.org.uk

[6][6] The Age of Unreason - Charles Handy - Arrow ISBN 0-09-975740-0 & The Empty Raincoat - Charles Handy, Hutchinson, ISBN - 0-09-178022-5.

[7][7] Bringing Home the Electronic Baby 1994 - Pauline Hodson - SPMP, London & Tavistock Marital Studies Inst.  Paper read at Stockholm University and at Global Village, Vienna. See www.teleworker.com or www.noelhodson.com

[8][8] Contact the Dublin Foundation through the EC in Brussels.

[9][9] Work, Information, Society and Employment - see www.WISE-Forum.org

[10][10] See Telecommute Review, January 1999.  www.gilgordon.com

[11][11] University of Cambridge survey for Richard Ellis & Partners, Real Estate - Dec 1988.

[12][12] See - DIPLOMAT Brochure, Telework Statistics www.WISE-Forum.org or contact NoelHodson@MSN.com by Email.

[13][13] Contact - Dr. John Preston, Director, Transport Studies Unit, University of Oxford - john.preston@tsu.ox.ac.uk

[14][14] Provided by Walter Paavonen, Paavonnen Consulting AB, Sweden.

[15][15] Published in full in  - Telecommuting Review Volume 16 No 2, February 1999. www.gilgordon.com

[16][16] The Global Trap, ZED Books, by Hans Martin & Harald Schumann - Der Speigel journalists. October 1997.